The Economic Forcing System introduced new features, especially after a No Trump opening. One of these features is the Repeated or Extended Stayman convention.

Note: The Economical Forcing System was developed by Mr. Eric Jannersten, (born 1912 and died 1982), of Stockholm, Sweden, in the 1960s and refined through the 1970s.

Note: For additional information review Efos Extended Stayman, which include the continuances following a No Trump opening bid.


The publication of Mr. Eric Jannersten, Vi spelar tävlingsbridge: Boken om Efos, (Translation: We Play Tournament Bridge: The Book / Story of Efos.), in the year 1956 contains and outlines additional information about his concept and bidding system.

To some degree the bidding system is similar to and has been compared to a Relay System in that, after an opening by one partner, the next, cheapest suit bid is considered either natural or a generally forcing bid. The Economic Forcing System and especially the opening bids were developed in the late 1940s and introduced in the early 1950s.

Opening Bids Only

Bid Strength Meaning
1 : 13-21 high card points Shows 3 plus Clubs.
1 : 13-21 high card points Shows 4 plus Diamonds.
1 : 13-21 high card points Shows 4 plus Hearts.
1 : 13-21 high card points Shows 4 plus Spades.
1 NT: 16-19 high card points Shows a balanced shape.
2 : 22 plus high card points Shows 5 plus Clubs.
2 : 18 plus high card points Shows 5 plus Diamonds.
2 : 18 plus high card points Shows 5 plus Hearts.
2 : 18 plus high card points Shows 5 plus Spades.
2 NT: 22-23 high card points Shows a balanced shape.

Side Note: The 1st Bermuda Bowl was conducted in 1950 in Hamilton, Bermuda, with three teams competing for the first official World Team Championship. The source of the information below is from the publication The Bermuda Bowl, authored by Mr. Brian Senior and Mr. Harry Francis and published in the year 1999 by the company Five Aces, which was co-founded by Mr. Brian Senior. Text is excerpted.

Representing Europe were Einar Werner and Rudolf Kock, Nils-Olof Lilliehook and Jan Wohlin of Sweden, teamed with Einar Thorfinnsson and Gunnar Gudmundsson of Iceland. The differences in bidding practices were major here.

Werner/Kock used their own version of Culbertson. Lilliehöök / Wohlin used Efos, a new system replete with artificial bids. Thorfinnsson/Gudmundsson employed the Vienna System, with asking bids.

Note: The team members representing Europe: Gunnar Guðmundsson, Rudolf Kock, Nils-Olof Lilliehöök, Einar Thorfinnsson, Einar Werner, and Jan Wohlin placed second in the event.



If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.