Rabbi's Rule
When the King is a singleton offside, play the Ace. A satirical rule attributed to Mr. Milton Shattner of New York, nicknamed The Rabbi because of his most authoritative whimsical pronouncements and, as has been reported, stern observations after the play of the hand has been completed.

In England, the term for an inexperienced or weak player.

1. A device used by handicapped players for holding a hand of cards;
2. A device to hold traveling scoreslips for inspection by the players after the game has been scored;
3. used to describe an action to ruin opponents by holding exceptionally good cards, or used to designate that player who holds such cards, also known as the cardrack.

Slang: a holding of only a few high or honor cards or only low spot cards, presumed to be unimportant in the bidding or play of the hand.

Rainbow Individual Movement

In comparison a Shomate movement is also an Individual movement, which is also called an Irregular Rainbow, and which does not keep the players in a particular group, thus allowing comparison across the field. This movement was devised for Individual Tournaments of 8, 9, or 10 tables. This movement is non-cyclic and must be conducted with Guide Cards.

In individual events section awards are earned by all four fields in a Rainbow movement but only by one field in a Shomate movement. Overall awards remain consistent and are based on the total number of tables in the event and the level of competition.

An increase of the contract in the denomination bid by the partner.

A player who raises the suit of his partner.

Random Draw Knockout Teams
The teams that remain in competition are paired for their next match by means of a random draw. Typically all the possible positions are written on slips of paper, and the captain of each team draws his next assignment at the time he reports his winning match result. The pairings for the first match also are random.

Random Hands - Random Deals - Random Boards
This is an action produced by shuffling and dealing 52 cards, which are to be inserted into the appropriate boards, which are then to be played. The Laws of Contract Duplicate Bridge (Part III, The Deal) are specific when the selected dealer is predetermined, but non-specific when the players are requested to shuffle and deal random hands to be placed in the boards. There are several variations, from which the bridge player may choose. Since this feature remains undefined, the player may, at his/her discretion, deal the cards in any fashion he/she chooses and which correspond and meet with the requirements of the sponsoring bridge organization or local bridge club.

1. the player shuffles the cards and then places one card to the left, followed by a second card to the right, third card and finally a fourth card. The player then places the fifth card on the first card to the left and the sixth card on the second card to the left, etc., until all 52 cards have been dealt. Numerically expressed: 1-2-3-4 and then 1-2-3-4 and then 1-2-3-4 - etc., until all 52 cards have been dealt.

2. the player shuffles the cards and then places one card to the left, followed by a second card to the right, third card and finally a fourth card. The player then places the fifth card on the fourth card, the sixth card on the third card, etc., all in reverse. Once the player reaches the first card, then the next card is placed on the card to the left, creating a "back and forth" motion. Numerically expressed: 1-2-3-4 and then 4-3-2-1 and then 1-2-3-4 - etc.

3. the player shuffles the cards and then places one card to the left, followed by four more cards, creating 1-2-3-4-5, and then reversing: 4-3-2-1 and again reversing: 2-3-4-5. No card is placed double on one pile. In other words: 1-2-3-4-5-4-3-2-1-2-3-4-5-4-3-2-1- etc, finishing 1-2-3-4, then taking together the piles one and five, which contain 7 and 6 cards respectively, into four hands of 13 cards. This method has been deemed not allowed by some sponsoring organizations, but there is no Law of Duplicate Contract Bridge, which states otherwise.

4. the player shuffles the cards and then places two cards, or even three cards, in one pile, followed by the same amount of cards in the second pile, until four piles have been created and all 52 cards have been dealt.

These methods of dealing 52 cards are definitely incomplete and the mathematical variations definitely not exhausted, and other variations exist. Whether or not they actually produce random hands remains questionable. In order to counter these imprecise methods of dealing, engineers have created dealing machines which do not require and eliminate the human element. The popularity of such dealing machines increases with the connection to the computer which then computes all data, including the outcome of all scores attained by the players. However, the price for such computer equipment remains exorbitant for many bridge clubs.

Random Leads
All bridge sponsoring organizations have Conditions of Contest regulations, to which all participants should adhere. One regulation is that the players on defense abide by the partnership agreement regarding carding and signaling. This agreement is entered on the Convention Card in the appropriate manner. This agreement may include the information about leading from a sequence, leading a singleton, leading from a doubleton, employing certain defense conventional carding agreements such as Journalist Leads, Lavinthal Discards, Reverse Signals or UDCA, Rusinow Leads or Journalist Leads, Scanian Signals, and the like. The partnership may not include an entry stating that Random Leads are employed since such leads are not approved by the sponsoring organizations.

The obvious disadvantage in leading randomly is that informative communication between defenders becomes impossible and therefore the defenders are unable to communicate count, attitude, and preference, which is essential when defending. The declarer also has the right to inquire verbally about the manner of defensive carding and this information must be communicated to the declarer. If this information is incorrect or misleading, then the declarer has the right to call the director, who may award an adjusted score based on whether damage has occurred.

There is no such group calling themselves the Bridge Police Force for Random Leads. Therefore if a defender does indeed lead a "random card", when another possibility is stated on the Convention Card (sequence, fourth down, singleton), then the defender will not be arrested, barred, or led off in handcuffs. However, an experienced declarer or dummy will be able to reconstruct the holding of the defenders and may conclude that such a lead has indeed damaged the outcome. The director will be called, who will be called upon to rule on the situation.

The ACBL Conditions of Contest including the General Conditions at all ACBL Events state: 7. Carding Agreements: A pair may not elect to have no agreement when it comes to carding. There have been pairs that say they just play random leads or that they lead the card closest to their thumb. They must decide on a carding agreement and mark their convention cards accordingly.

Randy Against No Trump Opening
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. Source is: Trinity College. There is a Trinity College Bridge Club and this particular conventional defense method against an opening No Trump by the opponents is part of the curriculum. The designation is presumed to be named for one of the college students and/or alumnus of the Trinity College, and developed by him. This conventional defense method is based on the Landy conventional defense method developed by Mr. Alvin Landy.

Short Version: Another, shorter version of Randy Against No Trump is presented by Mr. David Stevenson. This shorter version is very similar to the Randy conventional defense method employed by Trinity College, but it is not known whether or not the origin is identical. The absence of the 2 No Trump response by the intervenor to show both Minor suits is remarkable. Source is: David Stevenson.

Range Stayman
The origin of this conventional method is unknown, but the concept has become popular in certain bidding circumstances. It is applied in the fourth seat after two passes, which means that the Range Stayman becomes a balancing action.

1. the priority of suits in bidding and cutting with the suits rank in alphabetical order starting with Clubs-Diamonds-Hearts-Spades, ending with No Trump as the highest rank;
2. the trick-taking power of each card within a suit. The Ace, the King, the Queen, the Jack, the Ten have the top rank;
3. the status of a player in a masterpoint ranking system.

The position of a player, pair, or team in the section or in the overall tournament.

All players in the American Contract Bridge League are ranked in seventeen different categories, and these ranks are effective as of January 2016:


Masterpoint Requirement
Effective January 1, 2010 *

Masterpoint Requirement
Prior to January 1, 2010 **
Rookie Fewer than 5 Fewer than 5
Junior 5 5
Club Master 20 (at least 5 black) 20 (at least 5 silver)

Sectional Master

50 (at least 10 black and 5 silver 50 (at least 5 silver
Regional Master 100 (at least 15 black, 15 silver and 5 red/gold/platinum 100 (at least 15 silver and 5 red/gold/platinum
NABC Master 200 (at least 20 black, 25 silver and 20 red/gold/platinum, of which at least 25 must be gold/platinum 200 (at least 25 silver and 20 red/gold/platinum, of which at least 5 must be gold/platinum
Advanced NABC Master 300 (at least 50 black and 50 red/gold/platinum, of which at least 50 mustbe gold/platinum N/A
Life Master 500 (at least 75 black, 75 silver and 100 red/gold/platinum, of which at least 50 must be gold/platinum 300 (at least 50 black, 50 silver, 50 red/gold/platinum, of which at least 25 must be gold/platinum
Bronze Master Life Master with 750 Life Master with 500
Silver Life Master Life Master with 1,000 (at least 200 silver/red/gold/platinum
Ruby Life Master Life Master with 1,500 (at least 300 silver/red/gold/platinum
Gold Life Master Life Master with 2,500 (at least 500 silver/red/gold/platinum
Sapphire Life Master Life Master with 3,500 (at least 700 silver/red/gold/platinum, of which at least 350 must be gold or platinum)
Diamond Life Master Life Master with 5,000 (at least 1,000 silver/red/gold/platinum, of which at least 500 must be gold or platinum)
Emerald Life Master Life Master with 7,500 (at least 1,500 silver/red/gold/platinum, of which at least 750 must be gold or platinum)
Platinum Life Master Life Master with 10,000 (at least 2,000 silver/red/gold/platinum, of which at least 1,00 must be gold or platinum with a minimum of 100 platinum)
Grand Life Master Platinum Life Master with a victory in a qualifying North American Bridge Championship with no upper masterpoint restriction, a win in the United States or Canadian team trials or a World Bridge Federation championship.

Raptor Convention
The idea to utilize a 1NT overcall to denote a 5-4 two-suiter seems to have originated independently in Sweden and Poland in the early 1980s. The designation of the concept, however, is attributed to Mr. Ron Sutherland and his son who re-invented this approach and published it in a Toronto magazine in the year 1993 under the acronym wRAP around TORonto style.

Note: also known under the designations as Raptor 1 No Trump Overcall, Raptor 1NT Overcall, Polish No Trump, Poland 1 No Trump Overcall, and Polish 1 No Trump Overcall.

Rating Points
See: Club Masterpoints

Rattle Off
Slang: to run, as a solid suit or when the remaining suit cards are all winners.

Slang: a colloquial term in the bridge community to describe a holding with 4-4-4-1 distribution. Also referred to as a mongoose, or rhinocerous.

A bridge game derived from Mr. S.B. Fishburne’s Cutthroat, which was devised in 1936 and is regularly played at the Peninsular Club in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

RCO Two-Bids
An acronym for Rank-Color-Oddment. An opening two bid to show less than an opening bid and at least five-five in two suits: for two Hearts, Majors or Minors, sorted by rank; for two Spades, reds or blacks, sorted by color; for 2 No Trump, pointed suits or rounded suits, sorted by oddment.

1. a player's second bid;
2. to bid again a suit already bid by the same player.

Rebiddable Suit
A suit long and/or strong enough to be bid again in a given bidding situation. Generally, a six card suit which can be rebid.

Rebid By The Opener
In reality, the Rebid of the Opener is perhaps the most crucial bid in the auction process. In general, there are about 10 basic guidelines for the opener to follow, and these should be memorized in order that they come natural to the bridge player.

Rebid By The Responder
The Rebid of the responder is considered by many to be the most critical of all bids after the Opening Bid. Therefore, it is important to adhere to the Basic Guidelines and to the Partnership Agreement. After an exchange of descriptive information by the three previous bids.

Recap or Recapitulation Sheet
This is a large printed form on which the scores on pickup slips are posted at bridge tournaments, and on which matchpoints are assigned to scores, and totals computed / totaled either manually or by computer. These sheets are available in three forms:

1. Howell Movement games of team-of-four.
2. Mitchell Movement games.
3. Swiss Team events.

Reciprocal Squeeze

The term applied to a tournament or organization official, who keeps track of reports of non-standard behavior for possible subsequent action.

Recording of Masterpoints
The results of each masterpoint event was first developed by the ACBL. The results are reported by the tournament director to the national organization, and points are recorded to the credit of the winners of club games and to those players placing in local, sectional, or higher rated tournaments.

Recovery Trophy
The Recovery Trophy, sponsored by e-bridge and other sponsors of bridge tournaments, is an award given to those bridge players, who become the team making the most improvement in the second half of the event (in terms of places in the overall standings).

An adjustment made to allow the auction process to proceed as normally as possible after an irregularity has been established. Rectification covers those instances when an offender inadvertently gains information, to which he/she is not allowed under normal play.

Rectifying The Count
This is the process of losing a trick and/or a number of tricks, in order to reach a certain number of remaining losers, thereby enabling a desired ending to be reached.

Recursive Diamond, The
Developed over years or university semesters between 1999 and 2004 by Mr. Jason Woolever, Mr. Qixiang Sun, Mr. Adam Meuerson, and Mr. Greg Humphreys the bidding system is designed to provide many ways to describe distributional hands, letting partnerships ro reach and/or to stay out of games and slams, that are difficult or impossible to reach using standard methods. All opening bids except 1 Diamond are limited, allowing both opener and responder to focus entirely on shape and controls.

Original Outline Online
The first version of the bidding system in progress was posted online at the following address as a completed web page.

Second Updated Version
The second version of the bidding system was posted online at the following address. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Slang: to be vulnerable.

Red against Red
Slang: both sides are vulnerable.

Red against White
Slang: the situation whereby one pair is playing under vulnerable conditions, whereas the second pair is playing under non-vulnerable conditions.

Redclub or Rødkløver
This advanced bidding system has been published on the Internet by Mr. Bent Vangli of Norway. The information has been provided by Mr. Bent Vangli in both the languages of Norway and and in English.

Note: Mr. Bent Vangli of Norway posts on his site the Norwegian version in .pdf file format of Rødkløver, dated August 12, 2012. This article has also been archived and preserved only on this site in a .pdf file format (171 pages) for future referecne and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Note: Mr. Bent Vangli of Norway posts on his site the English version in .pdf file format of Redclub, dated August 12, 2012. This article has also been archived and preserved only on this site in a .pdf file format (171 pages) for future reference and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Note: As of the beginning of August Mr. Bent Vangli has announced the publication of the Redclub, Rødkløver, in either physical form or an on online epub book in the near future, which is planned to be available in both the Norwegian and English languages.

Note: Mr. Bent Vangli of Norway also posts an ePub version, which is an electronic publication, also known as ePub, ePUB, EPub, or epub, and is a free and open e-Book standard by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). Files have the extension .epub. Clicking on this file will cause the electronic publication to be automatically downloaded to your computer. Without the correct software the user will be unable to open this downloaded electronic publication.

A second or subsequent replacement for a canceled deal. Hands are never redealt at duplicate except in special cases on the instructions of the director.

A call, following an opposing double, that doubles all resulting scores and includes the penalties, the trick scores, and overtrick premiums.

Redouble Out Of Rotation
An improper call when it is partner’s or right hand opponent’s turn to call. If it is the partner’s turn to call, he must pass and continue to pass for the remainder of the auction. If the partner of the offender has the opening lead, the declarer may require or forbid him to lead a specified suit. If it is the turn of the right hand opponent to bid, the redouble must be repeated if this opponent passes. If the opponent bids, the offender may make any legal call, but his partner must pass at his next opportunity.


A double or redouble out of rotation may be accepted at the option of the opponent next in rotation (see Law 29), except that an inadmissible double or redouble may never be accepted (see Law 35A if the opponent next in rotation nevertheless does call). If the illegal call is not accepted, it is cancelled, the lead penalties of Law 26B may apply, and:

A. Made at Offender's Partner's Turn to Call

If a double or redouble out of rotation has been made when it was the offender's partner's turn to call, (penalty) the offender's partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side).

B. Made at RHO's Turn to Call

If a double or redouble out of rotation has been made at offender's RHO's turn to call, then:

1. RHO Passes

If offender's RHO passes, offender must repeat his out-of-rotation double or redouble and there is no penalty unless the double or redouble is inadmissible, in which case Law 36 applies.

2. RHO Bids

If offender's RHO bids, the offender may in turn make any legal call and (penalty) offender's partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side).

Red Points
Regional tournaments and regional events at NABCS award red points except for overall and section tops (see: Gold Points). Grand National Teams (GNT) Events, North American Open Pairs (NAOP) events, and other special games afford players the opportunity to earn red points at their local clubs. They assist in determining the rank of the player as, for example, a player is required to earn 25 Red Points, or the equivalent, as part of a total of 300 masterpoints to become a Life Master.

Red Ribbon Pairs
An ACBL event with national rating held during the Spring North American Bridge Championships. It is limited to players with no more than 2000 points who have qualified to play by placing first or second in regionally rated two-session championship events where the upper masterpoint limit is no more than 1500 masterpoints.

Reduced Howell

Redwood Convention
A version of the Kickback conventional method employed only when the agreed trump suit is a Minor suit. This concept is also based on the application called U.S.P., or Useful Space Principle conceived by Mr. Jeff Rubens.

Reed-Horn Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. James D. Horn, (aka Stormy) of El Paso, Texas, United States, and Richard Reed, aka Dick, of Boulder, Colorado, United States. They represent a variation of the Precision bidding system or vice versa, since the similarities are quite evident in part although the Club opening was increased in values and the No Trump values were lowered.

A card by which a player who has had the lead can regain it. This also includes the opening lead.

Reese Method
A method, which uses the bid of 3 No Trump as a takeout after a preempt on the three level in a Major suit only. The call of a double is for penalty. If the preempt is in a Minor suit, then a double is takeout, even in the pass-out seat.

Reeveu Bidding System
This is the designation listed in the publication of Mr. Albert A. Ostrow titled The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, published 1955. Additional information about this system and/or about the author is not available. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

1. to deliberately to fail to win a trick because of reasons of the plan of attack or strategy;
2. used also in the sense of ducking or refusing to finesse or not taking what was previously a winning finesse in order to ensure the contract;
3. an obsolete term formerly used in Whist and Auction Bridge, which defined the term as a failure to follow suit.

Regional or Regional Tournament
A tournament level above Sectional and below National. Each of the 25 districts within ACBL sponsors such events and a specific unit may be delegated the responsibility of planning and organizing such an event. A regional tournament generally runs from four to seven days and offers games for all levels of players. However, at Non-Life Master Regional events are run periodically and is limited to players with fewer than 300 masterpoints. At Senior Regionals the event is limited to players who are 55 years old or older.

Regional Master

Registered Teacher
In 1992, Units were offered the opportunity to officially honor the accomplishments of established bridge teaches in their areas by giving each of them the title of ACBL Registered Teacher.

See: Weak Opening Systems


Reisinger Memorial Trophy
This trophy was donated by the Greater New York Bridge Association in 1965 in memory of Mr. Curt H. Reisinger and awarded to the winners of the Fall NABC Board-a-Match Championship. It replaced the historic Chicago Trophy.

Reisinger Trophy
This trophy was donated by Mr. Curt H. Reisinger in 1930 for the Knockout Teams-of-Four contest in the Eastern States Championships, one of the bridge world’s oldest team events.

Reiter System, The
The is the designation given to a bidding system for contract bridge contained and explained in the publication The Reiter System of Contract Bridge Bidding, published in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, in the year 1932. The Library of Congress code is LC: 33014945. Any additional information will be greatly appreciated.

Reith One-Over-One
A system of bidding described by Mr. George Reith in a five book series published between 1930 and 1933. It applied the method of Approach Bidding and any 4-card suits could be bid. At the core of the system was the concept of emphasizing distribution as opposed to showing strength.

Reith Point Count
A point count devised by Mr. George Reith regarding the point values of high cards, especially for No Trump. An Ace was assigned 6 points, the King 4 points, the Queen 3 points, the Jack 2 points, and the Ten 1 point.

1. regarding a game-try or a slam-try;
2. regarding an invitation to take a particular action;
3. fail either to make the call suggested or invited, or to move in that direction;
4. to state or imply unwillingness to cooperate with partner's suggestion;
5. regarding a transfer, fail to make the call suggested by the transfer.

1. a minimum bid unrelated to the bidder’s hand or holding with the goal of keeping the auction open in order that the bidder’s partner can further describe his hand or holding;
2. the practice of sharing boards at duplicate bridge, sometimes necessary playing 6 or 8 or 12 table Mitchell movement in which 24 boards are to be played;
3. in England, a term to describe a byestand.

Relay Bids
Tracing the history of relay bids one comes across several notable names in bridge history. The first relay system was developed by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France around the early 1950s. In the year 1972 Mr. David Leigh Cliff developed the Relay System to the extent that it was accepted by many bridge players around the world. The Relay System is a system based on the idea that one player should make one or a series of minimum bids, or relays, in order to acquire sufficient information about the hand of his partner to be able to place the final contract.

Reverse Relay Bids
These are bids made per partnership agreement when using different bidding systems. There are employed in the Blue Team Club bidding system and also the Ultimate Club bidding system. For additional information, review especially the 1 Club opening in .pdf file format at Ultimate Club.

Shape Showing Relay Bids
These are bids made per partnership agreement when using different bidding systems. There are employed in the Blue Team Club bidding system and also the Ultimate Club bidding system. For additional information, review especially the 1 Club opening in .pdf file format at Ultimate Club. The object of the Shape-Showing Relay bids is to show the shape of the holding after the number of controls have been established.

Unbalanced Hand Relay Bids
These are bids made per partnership agreement when using different bidding systems. There are employed in the Blue Team Club bidding system and also the Ultimate Club bidding system. For additional information, review especially the 1 Club opening in .pdf file format at Ultimate Club.

Relay Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. S. G. Bose Mullick of New Delhi, India, and which were published in his book The Relay Club in the year 1975. They are the result of the study of several other opening bidding sequences and/or requirements such as the French Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Monaco opening bids, all of which employ the use of canapé and relay sequences.

Relay Mitchell

Relay Precision
Written by Mr. Hugh Grosvenor and Mr. Ian Robinson. This is an adaption of methods developed in New Zealand over the last few years. It is a strong club system, similar in many ways to Precision Club but using relay continuations over all of the openings. Symmetric Relay System.

Relay Precision
This version of the Symmetric Relay System is by Professor Roy Kerr and has been modified by Mr. Richard Hills in November 2000. This version has only been archived on this site in .pdf file format.

Relay Systems
These are bidding systems based on the concept that one player should make a series of minimum bids, or relays, until he has attained enough information about his partner’s hand in order to place the final contract. The first relay system was developed by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France in 1950. Other relay systems were developed by Dr. Bertrand Romanet called the Alpha, and Mr. Pierre Collet calling his relay system the Beta, both relay systems dating back to 1965.

Relay Table
One of the tables at which the players are sharing boards for that round with an adjacent table.

Relays Over Weak Two-Bids
1. a method of responding to weak two-bids using the relay system or the cheapest bid possible. The relay bid asks the opener to bid a stopper outside of his suit, if he has one. The relay bid is absolutely forcing;
2. another method is the Symmetric Relay method, applied by any pair using weak two-bids. This method uses 2 No Trump as a relay whenever the opening is 2 Hearts or 2 Spades.

The remaining cards of a 4-card suit or longer, outstanding in the other three hands at the bridge table. Two or three card remainders are called Balanced Remainders. One card and four card remainders are called Unbalanced Remainders.

To continue to bid after the partner has doubled for penalties.

The failure to follow suit when holding one of more cards of the suit led. A synonym for revoke. The term is a carry over from Two-Handed Pinochle and French Whist, in which players are allowed to revoke. Note: another term for renege is the term fainaigue, which stems from British dialect, the origins or which are not clear.

This is a term from Auction Bridge and means to fail to follow suit even though it is possible. It means to play a card of a suit other than the one led, while holding one or more cards of that suit. It has the same meaning as revoke.


Responding Doubles of 1NT Responses and Rebids
This is a contribution of Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, United States, to whom we are indebted. This is a revised version of the original article, which appeared in Popular Bridge magazine of June 1977, and in The Bridge Bulletin of ACBL in February 1995, page 93. This information is presented in .pdf file format and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Reopen the Bidding

Repeating Triple Squeeze

The action of leading to the establishment of a new winner as a squeeze card, typically resulting in a multi-trick gain.

A second chance after losing in a knockout competition. A tournament form in which entrants temporarily eliminated from the main event reenter after outstanding performance in a secondary event. This was a feature of the Rosenblum Cup Teams. This event was added to the World Pair Championships in 1978 to honor Mr. Julius Rosenblum, who was the former President of the World Bridge Federation. Although the event was primarily a knockout, the event originally had an unusual feature, and that was the element that allowed a defeated team to get a second chance, or a Repechage, to compete.

Replay Duplicate
A form of duplicate in which just two pairs play against each other, playing the same boards but first in one position, and then in the other position. Popular in the Twenties, but now obsolete.

This designation refers to a player, who makes a call based on the request by the partner for specific information based on a partnership understanding.

A form of responsive bids after the opponents attempt to disrupt the line of communication when using any form of Blackwood to determine the amount of Key Cards. A redouble indicates an Even number of Key Cards whereas a Pass indicates an Odd number of Key Cards. See: Blackwood After Interference.

Slang: a term for opener’s rebid on the Three Level of the same suit after partner has raised the same suit only to the Two Level, indicating an invitation to game with maximum and to pass with a minimum.

This is a term to designate the third bid of a player pertaining to the same suit or to bid again a suit already bid twice by the same player.

This is a term for partner’s action of bidding another suit or No Trump after partner has already doubled for penalties. There are three factors to be considered when taking such an action:
1. the length of the doubled suit;
2. the level of the potential rescue;
3. the quality of the rescuer’s suit compared with the likely quality of the doubled suit.

Rescue Bid
A bid, normally based on a long suit, made with less than normal values owing to a misfit with the partner’s bid suit after it has been doubled.

Rescue Redouble
A S.O.S. redouble.

Reserve One’s Rights
A player, in special tournaments and circumstances, can announce that he reserves his rights. The announcement is made when there is a possibility of an opponent having received certain unauthorized information. This feature is not available in ACBL sanctioned events, rather the director must be called immediately.

Resock or Rewind
Slang: to redouble.


The partner of the opener.

Responder’s Rebid
The second bid by the responder after his partner has rebid.

Responding To An Opening Bid

Normally the bid by a player whose partner has opened the bidding, but can be applied to describe a response to an overcall, a takeout double, a cuebid, a conventional bid, and so forth.

Responsive Doubles
This concept was devised by and originated with Dr. F. Fielding-Reid of Dania, Florida, United States. After an opening, a takeout double by partner and a two- or three-level raise by the partner (responder) of the opener, the partner (advancer) of the takeout doubler can also double, thereby providing and communicating descriptive information about his hand. This action is known as a responsive double.

Responses to a Takeout Double by Your Partner
The responses to a takeout double are dependent upon the situation. For example, the situation must be clear as to whether the advancer has previously passed or whether has the responder bid over the takeout double. The more preferred responses are presented to the bridge player and these responses are based upon the holding itself.

Restricted Choice
A mathematically based guideline for analyzing suit combinations. In general, the guideline states that a play of a card which may have been selected as a choice of equal plays increases the chance that the player started with a holding in which his choice was restricted. The main principles of the Rule of Restricted Choice were first mentioned by Mr. Alan Truscott in the Contract Bridge Journal, and later published by Mr. Terence Reese in his book Master Play.

Result Merchant or Result Player - Second Guesser
These are all colloquial designations for a partner, or for a spectator, who suggests a line of play that would have been successful after declarer, who has failed to fulfill the contract, with a different strategy of play. Sometimes referred to as: Monday-Morning Quarterback.

Retain The Lead
To continue to lead the first card to a trick after having won the previous trick.

Retek Trophy
This trophy is awarded to the player who wins the most masterpoints at the CanAm Regional.

The act of transferring one's partner into a suit previously transfered into.

To lead back the same suit partner has lead or signaled.

Reunion - Comité de Bridge de la Reunion

Club de Bridge de la Reunion - A list of bridge clubs affilitated with the District Bridge de la Reunion.

The reassessment of a hand after receiving information through the bidding process. This reassessment procedure can, based on the ascertained information, increase or decrease the value of the hand.

To adjust the hand valuation based on the progress of the auction.

Reverse Benjamin
A version of ACOL, where 2 Clubs is game-forcing, 2 Diamonds shows an Acol Two Bid, and 2 Hearts/Spades are weak. See Benjamin convention.

Reverse Bid

Reverse Count
A method of giving count by playing low-high to indicate an even number of cards. The reverse is to play high-low to indicate an odd number of cards. The concept originated in Sweden.

Reverse Dummy
See: Dummy Reversal.

Reverse Flannery
An opening bid of 2 Diamonds to show a minimum opening hand with four Hearts and five Spades. This method is generally used by those partnerships playing Canape.

Reverse Signals or UDCA
A defense signaling method of informing one's partner as to attitude towards the card led and/or both count and attitude.

1. A relatively low card encourages the continuation of a suit being led.

2. A relatively high card discourages the continuation of a suit being led.

Perceived Advantages:

Avoids wasting a high card to signal positive attitude in a suit.

Reduces the possibility of false carding by declarer.

Reverse Smith Echo or Signal
See: Smith Echo or Signal


Reverse Swiss
The use of an unusual jump shift rebid by the opener to make a game raise of responder’s suit and which promises strength in values as opposed to distributional strength.

Review The Bidding
A player who has not heard or understood a call or bid has the right to require that a previous call or the entire auction be repeated or reviewed. This is the right of any player at his/her turn, unless he/she is required by Law to pass. In duplicate, the declarer or either of the defenders can require such a review at his own first turn to play, even after the auction has been completed and play has started. See Law 20.


A. Call Not Clearly Heard

A player who does not hear a call distinctly may forthwith require that it be repeated.

B. Review of Auction during Auction Period

During the auction period, a player is entitled to have all  previous calls restated when it is his turn to call, unless he is required by law to pass; Alerts should be included in the restatement.

C. Review after Final Pass

1. Opening Lead Inquiry

After the final pass either defender has the right to ask if it is his opening lead (see Law 47E and Law 41).

2. Review of Auction

Declarer or either defender may, at his first turn to play, require all  previous calls to be restated (see Law 41B and Law 41C).

D. Who May Review the Auction

A request to have calls restated shall be responded to only by an opponent.

E. Correction of Error in Review

All players, including dummy or a player required by law to pass, are responsible for prompt correction of errors in restatement (see Law 12C1 when an uncorrected review causes damage).

F. Explanation of Calls

1. During the Auction

During the auction and before the final pass, any player, at his own turn to call, may request  a full explanation of the opponents' auction (questions may be asked about calls actually made or about relevant calls available but not made); replies should normally be given by the partner of a player who made a call in question (see Law 75C).

2. During the Play Period

After the final pass and throughout the play period, either defender at his own turn to play may request  an explanation of opposing auction. At his or dummy's turn to play, the declarer may request an explanation of a defender's call or card play conventions.

Revised Cappelletti Defense Method
This designation is the term used by Mr. John Blubaugh in his article for the Bridge Bulletin, December 1996.

Revised DONT
The origin of this variation is unknown. The original concept was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen. The original convention is sometimes referred to as Bergen Over No Trump, but has been accepted into the language of the bridge community as simply D.O.N.T. As with all defense methods, this concept has also been altered, varied, modified, and revised to meet the needs of individual partnerships.

Revised Pottage

The play of a card of another suit by a player who is able to follow suit or comply with a lead penalty. See Laws 61 to 64. Note: another term for renege is the term fainaigue, which stems from British dialect, the origins or which are not clear.

Revoke: to fail to follow suit in cards when required and able to do so. Derivations are: revoker.
Renege: to fail to follow suit in cards when able and required by the rules to do so. Derivations are: reneger.
Fainaigue: a Britishism. (intransitive verb); to renege in card games. Derivations are: fainaiguer and finagle. (Note: perhaps from fain, homonym of feign (to pretend) and ague (acute illness) or cognate French aigüe (as in maladie aiguë, acute illness) - literally to act sick.
German: nicht bedienen.
French: renege
Italian: renege, renegue
Spanish: renege

Revolving Discards
This version of discarding to communicate with the partner playing defense was devised and developed by Mr. J. Attwood. This is a method of discarding which assigns a suit preference meaning to the first discard on any hand. A low card calls for the suit below the suit in which the signal is given, and a high card for the suit above. The suits are considered in a circle - Spades - Hearts - Diamonds - Clubs - Spades - etc. - with Spades below the Club suit. Therefore, a low discard of a Club on a Heart lead would request a Spade return, and a high Club would call for a Diamond return.

A second method is that a low card asks for the lower-ranking of the other two suits, and a high card asks for the higher-ranking suit. See: Lavinthal Signals.

A colloquial term for redouble. For the same action one can also employ the other four English-based " w's ", which are re-walloped, re-whammed, re-whopped, re-wind.

Rex Bridge
This is a Swedish variation on contract bridge in which any player may introduce a Rex call at any time, which ranks between Spades and Hearts. It is a No Trump contract except that the Ace of each suit ranks below the deuce, and the King is the high card in each suit. The remaining cards maintain their own rank with respect to the King of that suit.

R/H 4 No Trump Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown, but the strong assumption is, however, that Mr. Ranik Halle, original birth-name Andronik Saradscheff, is the author. The concept is that any bid of 4 No Trump by either partner inquires of the partner a response, which would communicate the suit quality of the held honors, which are namely the specific honors of Ace, King, and Queen of the established trump suit.

An abbreviation for Right-Hand Opponent or the player to one's right.

The situation in which the bidding and the play follows in a uniform tempo. The accent is not on speed of the bidding and/or the play, but based on its uniformity.

Ribbon Event Eligibility

These Conditions of Contest may not be changed at any level of play during the course of this event.

Lack of knowledge does not constitute cause for exemption.


(Qualifications that were won previous to 1991 that expired and/or were credited to a player entered in a Blue Ribbon Event prior to 1991 no longer count as a Red Ribbon Qualification. No qualification earned previous to 1986 may count.)

1. First through eighth in all North American Bridge Championship knockout events with an upper masterpoint limit of at least 300 and not more than 1500.

2. First through 10th and ties in North American Bridge Championships of four or more sessions that have an upper masterpoint limit of no more than 1500 masterpoints.

3. First and second (including ties) in all regionally rated red or gold point events of two or more sessions that have an upper limit of at least 300 points and of no more than 1500 masterpoints.

4. Members of the Flight B and the Non-Life Masters District Champions in the Grand National Teams.

5. First and second (including ties) in Non-Life Master single-site District finals; first-place pairs at each site in split-site District finals.

6. First and second (including ties) in the North American 49er Pairs final at the NABC.

7. 10th overall or better in the North American Junior Pair Championship for players who do not receive Blue Ribbon qualification.

8. First and second (including ties) in the North American Youth Championship.

9. First and Second place finishers in the National Final of Flight B and Non-Life Master Flight of the GNT and the Non-Life Master Flight of North American Pairs (NAP).

10. Players with a Blue Ribbon or Silver Ribbon qualification provided they do not have more than 2000 masterpoints as of the last point notification prior to the event.

11. First and second in any bracket of a bracketed KO which does not award 100% gold points for overall placing when no member of the team has more than 1500 masterpoints.


Silver Ribbon eligibility will be earned for first and second place (and ties) in the following qualifying events: gold and/or red point, regional and higher-rated Senior (55 years of age or older) events of at least two sessions with an upper masterpoint limit at least 300.

Players with Blue or Red Ribbon qualification provided that they are 55 years of age or older at the beginning of the event.


(Qualifications that were won previous to 1991 that expired and/or were credited to a player entered in a Blue Ribbon Event prior to 1991 no longer count as a Blue Ribbon Qualification. In no instance may a qualification won prior to 1986 be counted.)

1. First through eighth in the Vanderbilt, Spingold, Women's, or Senior Knockout Teams at NABC Championships.

2. First through 10th and all ties in all other nationally rated events that have an upper masterpoint limit of more than 1500 masterpoints.

3. Except for Continuous Pairs/Side Game Series type events, first and second (including ties) in all Gold Point Regionally-Rated Events with no upper masterpoint limit or with an upper masterpoint limit of more than 1500 masterpoints. For bracketed KOs the foregoing applies to brackets issuing 100% gold points and for an applicable team in any bracket having at least one member with more than 1500 masterpoints.

4. The 100 players having the greatest total of master-points as of the Sept. 1 ACBL computer cycle.

5. All members of the Championship and A Flight District champions in the Grand National Teams and the winners and zonal champions in the Canadian National Team Championship Flight A.

6. Winners of the Canadian Women's Team Championship.

7. First and clear second in single-site District finals of North American Open Pairs - Flight A and Flight B. First and ties for first in multiple site District finals.

8. First through 10th in the North American Junior Pair Championship (not to exceed 5% of pairs entered).

9. First and Second (including ties) in the National Final of the Championship and A Flights of the GNT and Flights A and B of the North American Open Pairs (NAOP).

10. All past world champions.

11. Canadian Open Pairs - Regionally Rated (COPC), Mexican Grand National Teams,(MGNTC), Bermuda National Pairs (BNPC), and Bermuda National Teams (BNTC). 1st and 2nd place finishers in the pair events and winners of the team events.


The following chart shows how Blue, Silver and Red Ribbon relate:


Where qualification can be used

Qualification Earned Blue Red Silver
Blue Yes *Yes **Yes
Red No *Yes **Yes
Silver No *Yes **Yes

* Player must have fewer than 2000 masterpoints as of the last point confirmation card mailed prior to the event. If you do not receive point confirmation cards, call 901-332-5586, Ext. 307, for information on your status.

** Player must be at least 55 years of age as of the beginning of the event.

Rice System - The Rice System
This is a form of a bidding system devised by Mr. Julian Rice, born in 1894 and died in 1973. He is the younger brother of Mrs. Dorothy Rice Sims, who was married to Mr. Phillip Hal Sims, a member of the Hall of Fame with the American Contract Bridge League. The bidding system was published in his book The Rice System, published in the years between c1932 and c1935, owing to the fact that the bidding system was being revised and finalized for publication. No additional information is available about the bidding system. This information has been contributed by Mr. Paul Ryan, to whom we are indebted.

Note: Mr. Julian Rice was also an expert sportsfan, who changed the rules of scoring in the game of basketball and was influential in establishing guidelines for other forms of sport.

Richmond Trophy
The Richmond Trophy was first introduced in 1974. Named after Mr. David G. Richmond it is annually awarded to the Canadian that wins the most Masterpoints each year. Mr. David G. Richmond donated a handsome trophy in May, 1976 to be awarded each year to Canada's top masterpoint winner. It was retroactively awarded first to the 1974 and 1975 winners. Mr. David Richmond was a well-known and historic figure in Winnipeg history. He was elected treasurer of the Winnipeg Bridge Club in 1951, became Winnipeg's second Life Master in 1958 and in that year assumed the Presidency of the Manitoba Unit No.181. Under his leadership the unit flourished. He sponsored Saskatchewan’s entry into District 14 and also helped Thunder Bay become a full fledged member in the District. He served two three-year terms as President of District 14 and was second alternate of District 14 for six years. Mr. David Richmond was a registered Life Member of the National Goodwill Committee of the ACBL and a member of the Board of Governors of the ACBL for District 2. His greatest concern was for the charity aspect of the ACBL and he claimed that he derived the most satisfaction when he and his committee brought the Charity Shield to the Manitoba Unit for the first time in District 14. The Charity Shield came to the Manitoba Unit two years later for a repeat performance.

1974 John Carruthers Toronto, Ontario
1975 Mike Schoenborn Toronto, Ontario
1976 Bruce Ferguson New Westminster, British Columbia
1977 Bruce Ferguson New Westminster, British Columbia
1978 Bruce Ferguson Calgary, Alberta
1979 Mark Molson Montreal
1980 Mark Molson Montreal
1981 George Mittelman Toronto, Ontario
1982 Mark Molson Montreal
1983 Mark Molson Montreal
1984 Mark Molson Montreal
1985 Cliff Campbell Thunder Bay, Ontario
1986 Cliff Campbell Thunder Bay, Ontario
1987 Gary Tomczyk Parksville, British Columbia
1988 Robert Crawford Vancouver, British Columbia
1989 Gary Tomczyk Parksville, British Columbia
1990 Robert Crawford Vancouver, British Columbia
1991 Cameron Doner Vancouver, British Columbia
1992 Cliff Campbell Thunder Bay, Ontario
1993 Cliff Campbell Thunder Bay, Ontario
1994 Martin Caley Montreal
1995 Ken Warren Pickering, Ontario
1996 Martin Caley Montreal
1997 Hans Jacob Aurora, Ontario
1998 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
1999 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
2000 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
2001 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
2002 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
2003 Kenny Gee Regina Saskatchewan
Kenny Gee
2003 Year of the Ram
Kenny Gee wins 6 in a row
Retires from the Richmond Trophy Race

I would like to thank all my partners and teammates for their efforts which contributed to my 6th straight win of the Richmond Trophy. This will be my last Richmond. I have asked the CBF to remove my name from the Richmond Trophy Race. I have enjoyed the last 6 years and it is time to pass the torch. I wish all the Canadians luck this year. I am sure 2004 will be another great year for all bridge players.

2004 Ian Boyd Calgary, Alberta
2005 Barry Harper Regina Saskatchewan
2006 Barry Harper Regina Saskatchewan

Richter 1 Spade Response to a 1 Club Opening Bid
The origin of this response is unknown. This first response to a 1 Club opening bid by partner can show any of the following holdings. Source: Orange Book EBU, Section 13.

1. A balanced holding with no 4-card Major suit and any defined values.
2. May show Diamonds. Invitational or better values.
3. A very weak raise in Clubs.

Riddles - Briddles - Quizzes

1. to take a finesse;
2. to fail to cover;
3. a large penalty, referring to the usage in the illegal side of the law when a victim is "taken for a ride".

A form of light shuffling in which the cards from two halves of the pack are interleaved.

Right-Hand Player
The player who, in rotation, acts before the given player. There are distinctions in the rules between irregular acts committed by the right-hand or left-hand player. Generally, the term is used to refer to the player sitting to the right of the declarer after the play commences.

Right Side
A term which refers to the more favorable placement of declarer in relation to the cards held by the opponents as compared to the opposite side of the table, which could eventually result in a losing finesse, for example.

The act of placing the declarer on the more favorable side, generally to put a particular opponent on lead, who has taken such action as to suggest that this action would be preferable.

Rights of the Player
A player does not forfeit his/her rights if the director is called after an irregularity has occurred. Neither does an opponent of the violator lose any rights if the violator or his partner is the first to call attention to the irregularity.

Slang: right hand opponent.

The reverse of ROPI. RIPO is a method for dealing with interference after the start of Blackwood, and is an acronym for Reverse 1 (One), Pass zerO. This method has lead to some misunderstanding between the partners, and is now not commonly applied.

Ripstra Convention
The Ripstra convention was devised by Mr. Joseph (Rip) G. Ripstra of Canada, born in the year 1900 and died in the year 1982, and who was President of ACBL in the year 1957. This conventional defense method shows actually a three-suited holding. It is an overcall after a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent, and can be used either in the immediate position or in the pass-out seat after two consecutive passes.
The range of the No Trump opening can either be a range for a strong No Trump opening or a weak No Trump opening.

To play a high card as opposed to a low card.

Ritter Stayman or Ritter Strength Showing Stayman or Ritter Stayman Variation
These are unsubstantiated designations for a seldom employed Stayman variation, which asks via a Stayman bid of 2 Clubs the No Trump bidder to first show minimum or maximum values and possible distribution. See: Stayman - Strength Showing, which is the accepted designation.

An acronym for Roman Key Card Blackwood.

Robert Coup

Robertson Point Count
A point count published by Mr. Edmund Robertson in 1904.

7 points
5 points
3 points
2 points
1 point

A variation of this point count is the Bamberger Point Count used by the Vienna System:

7 points
5 points
3 points
1 point

A defensive bidding system against the Forcing Club Convention. It was developed by Mr. Kit Woolsey and named for his long time partner, Mr. Steve Robinson.

Double: Strong, promising 16 plus high card points.
1 : Shows a black two-suiter or a red two-suiter.
1 : Shows a Major two-suiter or a Minor two-suiter.
1 : Natural and generally weak in values.
1 NT: Shows a Club-Heart two-suiter or a Diamond-Spade two-suiter.
2 any suit: Promises a natural one-suited overcall.

Roche Defense Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this modification of the convention is unknown, although the concept may be attributed to Mr. Michael J. Roche of Ontario, Canada. The features behind the concept of this competitive defense method are employed after a No Trump opening by an opponent. Whether or not the concept can / should be employed only in the immediate seat or also as a balancing action is dependent on the partnership agreement.

Rock Crusher
Slang: a very powerful hand.

Rockwell Trophy
This trophy was donated by Helen Rockwell in 1946 for the North American Mixed Pair Championship. This trophy replaced the Hilliard Trophy contested as a four-session event at the Fall North American Championships.

1. This is a term referring to any variation of the Blackwood and Gerber conventions, whereby the cheapest rebid outside the agreed trump suit asks for Kings wholesale.
2. This term also refers to the bid of 4 No Trump, which encourages the partner to bid slam without making any explicit reference to any specific control or controls.

Rolling Blackwood or Sliding Blackwood
Rolling Blackwood, or Sliding Blackwood, is a variation of the Blackwood convention. It takes into account that two partners could reach an unsafe contract in the Minors using the normal Blackwood convention.

Rolling Gerber
A variation of the Gerber convention in which the cheapest non-trump bid, instead of 5 Clubs, ask for Kings.

Roman Asking Bids
Roman Asking Bids are an integral feature of the Roman System, and have, in part, been incorporated in the 1969 version of the Kaplan-Sheinwold System. It must be noted that both bidding systems limit the use of the asking bids to jump bids, which would otherwise be meaningless or impart no logical information.

Roman Blackwood
This conventional method, devised by expert bridge players from Italy, is a variation on the conventional method of Mr. Easley Blackwood and shows either matching and non-matching Aces, and later Kings, of the color and/or rank.

Blue Team Club Responses - Blue Team Roman Responses
The Roman Blackwood conventional method, itself a variation of the original Blackwood Convention, has a variation. This variation was devised by the Blue Team Club of Italy and was applied with some success. Blue Team was the popular name given to the Italian International Bridge Team, which had a series of huge successes starting in 1956 and ending in 1969. The main concept of the Blue Team Club Responses or Blue Team Roman Responses is the same as with the Roman Blackwood conventional method, but the first two responses have been reversed.

British Style Roman Blackwood
The Roman Blackwood conventional method, as devised by the successful Blue Team Club of Italy, proved to have a flaw in the responses in so far that the response of 5 Hearts was ambiguous. Bridge players in the United Kingdom devised a variation to overcome this flaw.

Roman Discards or Signals
A method of showing that odd-numbered spot cards are encouraging, and even-numbered spot cards are discouraging and signify a suit preference signal. Originally a part of the Roman System.

1. An odd discard encourages continuation of a suit being led.

2. An even discard discourages continuation of a suit being led.

3. A relatively high even-card suggests a shift to the higher-ranking suit other than the trump suit.

4. A relatively low even-card suggests a shift to the lower-ranking suit other than the trump suit.


When wishing the continuation of a suit, but lacking an odd card to encourage, the attempt to give a preference signal would appear inconsistent.

A variation of the Secondary Squeeze, whereby one opponent, by the play of the declarer, is forced or squeezed out or a side winner or a card, which may be led to his partner's winner.

Roman Gerber Convention
Since the year 1938, bridge players around the world have altered, modified, and expanded the concept of Mr. John Gerber. This is a modification of the Gerber convention, which uses Roman-style responses.

Roman Jump Overcall
The use of a jump overcall to show a two-suited hand, specifically the suit bid and the next higher ranking suit excluding the suit of the opener. For example, if the opening bid is 1 Diamond, then:

2 : Shows Hearts and Spades
2 : Shows Spades and Clubs
3 : Shows Clubs and Hearts

The strength needed to overcall in such a manner is generally that necessary to make an opening bid. If the two-suited holding is stronger in values and/or distribution, then this is indicated by a conventional 2 No Trump overcall.

Roman Key Card Blackwood
This variation of the Blackwood convention includes the King of Trump as a fifth Ace, and the responder shows Key Cards.

RKCB Void Showing Variation

Roman Key Card Blackwood 1430 Convention
A variation of Roman Key Card Blackwood which reverses the meaning of two responses.

Roman Key Card Gerber 0314 and 1430

6-Ace Roman Key Card Blackwood
This conventional method, otherwise known by its abbreviated designation 6A-RKCB, is considered to be a natural extension of the concept known as Roman Key Card Blackwood, whereby the Key Card Bidder asks for five known Key Cards. However, the 6A-RKCB conventional method asks for eight known Key Cards, the four Aces, the two Kings, and the two Queens. The one difference is that the Roman Key Card Blackwood conventional method applies to only one known suit fit, whereas the 6A-RKCB conventional method applies to two known suit fits.

Roman Leads

Roman MUD or Roman Middle-Up-Down
A method of leading from four small cards. The opening leader leads the second highest from his four small cards, then follows with the highest, then with the third highest and finally plays the lowest. An example would be: S: 8642. The lead is the 6, followed by the 8, followed by the 4, followed by the 2. This principle of leading is normally confined to the opening lead only.

Note: Mr. Mel Colchamiro authored an extensive article about the advantages and disadvantages of MUD leads, which was published in the Bridge Bulletin as published by the ACBL for September 2013. His article dissects the concept, which was of the hugely successful Italian Blue Team that won 13 world championships betwwen the years 1961 and 1975, when they disbanded. This article has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference and for the convenience of the reader.

Roman System
A bidding system developed by Mr. Walter Avarelli and Mr. Giorgio Belladonna. A 1 Club opening is forcing and can show four different distinct types of holdings. A 1 Club opening can show 12 to 16HCPs with a 4-3-3-3 or 4-4-3-2 distribution. A 1 Diamond, a 1 Heart, and a 1 Spade opening are natural bids, and show at least a 4-card suit, and are also forcing. 2 Clubs and 2 Diamonds openings show 3-suited holdings of 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0 distribution and at least 12 to 16HCPs or 17 to 20HCPs respectively. 2 Hearts and 2 Spades openings promise at least a 5-card suit with at least a 4-card Club suit. A 2 No Trump opening shows a balanced hand with 23 to 24HCPs.

Roman Two Diamonds
A bid used in the Roman System to show a strong hand with 5-4-4-0 or 4-4-4-1 distribution.

Romex Award

Romex Bidding System

Romex Drury
The Romex Drury conventional method is attributed to Mr. George Rosenkranz, who was born August 20, 1916, in Budapest, Hungary, and whose birth-name is Mr. György Rosenkranz. In later years he immigrated to the country of Mexico and took up residence in Mexico City. As the originator of the Romex System it proved necessary to re-write or re-define the original concept of Drury as designed by Mr. Douglas A. Drury.

Romex Gerber
After the Gerber Convention was devised, many bridge players began to apply it in their bidding auctions. They discovered that the convention had several drawbacks and decided to alter the convention. Other partnerships devised a modification of the Roman Gerber variation, and this modification was used in the Romex Bidding System.

Romex Jump Shifts
The concept behind any jump shift in the Romex Bidding System is that the bid is forcing. The idea is similar to the Two-Over-One bidding system, which guarantees game. After an opening bid, if the responder bids and then rebids any other suit except the first named suit, then a game-forcing situation has been created.

Romex Namyats
This concept is an integral part of the Romex Bidding System, devised and developed over the years by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico in cooperation and collaboration with Mr. Phillip Alder. The principle behind the concept is based on the original Namyats convention, devised by Mr. Victor Mitchell. The basic structure remains the same, but the requirements are stricter and more accurately defined.

Romex Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico. The following schematic shows the requirements. These bids have been developed over a period of time and published in his books, co-authored with Mr. Phillip Alder, Bid To Win, Play For Pleasure, Godfrey's Bridge Challenge, and Godfrey's Stairway To The Stars.

Romex Stayman Over 2 NT and 1 NT
This concept, as a variation of the conventional Stayman convention, was devised by Mr. Marshall Miles, Mr. George Rosenkranz, the developer of the Romex Bidding System, and others developed this alternative to Puppet Stayman.

Romex Trump Asking Bids
The Romex Bidding System, devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz and Mr. Phillip Alder employs the 2 Clubs opening as an artificial bid, which is forcing to game. The Trump Asking Bids are conducted in Step Responses, and the trump suit may change during the bidding sequence.

An acronym for Raise Only Non-Force, and used as a response to Weak Two-Bids.

An ACBL member who has fewer than 5 full masterpoints recorded by the ACBL.

There have been bridge experiences in the past, where the Blackwood Convention has been initiated, and the Left Hand Opponent of the Blackwood Bidder has doubled. This double could be a Lead-Directing Double. Some bridge players have agreed to use ROPI if this call has been made. ROPI stands for Redouble shows zero (0) Aces and a Pass shows one (1) Ace.

Roseman Club - The Roseman Club
This is a bidding system presented in a publication by Mr. David N. King, published in 2006 by Bear Publications Worcester, ISBN-10: 0-9551105-1-3 / ISBN-13: 978-0-9551105-1-1. Source. Introduction to The Roseman Club as authored by Mr. David N. King (Source) is also preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Rosenblum Cup Teams
This event was added to the World Pair Championships in 1978 to honor Mr. Julius Rosenblum, who was the former president of the World Bridge Federation. Although the event was primarily a knockout, the event originally had an unusual feature, and that was the element that allowed a defeated team to get a second chance, or a Repechage, to compete.

Rosenkranz Award
This award was endowed by Mr. George Rosenkranz and is the Romex Award for the Best Bid Hand of the Year, presented annually by the International Bridge Press Association. The Award is only given in respect of a hand which occurred in play, whether in tournament, in a match, or even in a private play.

George Rosenkranz Control Showing Responses
The original concept is designated as Control Showing Responses (also Step Responses) to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs opening. These original responses should be viewed first and then the variation and/or version as suggested by Mr. George Rosenkranz, which not only show the number of controls but also possible stoppers in suits for a suitable No Trump contract.

Rosenkranz Double and Rosenkranz Redouble
A convention devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico to help an overcaller more accurately judge and evaluate his holding in respect to the response of the responder. If a player overcalls an opening bid and the next player makes a bid, a double by the partner of the overcaller shows a raise in partner's suit that includes the Ace, King or Queen of that suit. If the partner of the opening bidder makes a Negative Double over the overcall, then a redouble by the partner of the overcaller shows a raise with one of the top three honors. This feature has also been designated as the Rosenkranz Redouble and also Honor Redouble.

Conversely, if the partner of the overcaller, in either situation, merely raises the suit bid by the overcaller, this indicates that he does not hold one of the top three honors in the suit of his partner.

Some partnership agreements contain the feature of the Reverse Rosenkranz Double, whereby the double, or redouble, denies a top honor in the suit of the overcaller.

The following auction plus the explanations of the multiple responses by West, known as the advancer, illustrates the original conventional method. If South doubles, then West can redouble to communicate the exact same information.

North   Easy   South   West
1 //   1   2 //   ?
Double: This promises a minimum raise with at least a 3-card plus support for partner's suit, AND includes either an Ace, a King, or a Queen in the suit of the overcaller.
2 : This promises a minimum raise with at least a 3-card plus support for partner's suit, AND denies either an Ace, a King, or a Queen in the suit of the overcaller.
3 //: (or the suit of the overcaller) - This is a limit raise or better, AND denies either an Ace, a King, or a Queen in the suit of the overcaller.
3 :
This is a preemptive raise in the suit of partner.

The alternative meaning for the double after three suits have been bid is for Takeout, showing five cards in the unbid suit and moderate strength. See: Snapdragon.

See also: Guildenstern, which is a variation whereby the meanings of the redouble and the direct raise are reversed.

See also: Munson Redouble, which is a variation whereby the redouble shows a shortage, which includes also either the Ace or King, devised by Kitty Munson Cooper.

Rosenkranz Spiral Scan
The following is a description of the Spiral Scan originated by Mr.George Rosenkranz. The conventional method is used for uncovering key side-suit Kings and Queens. Using the Spiral Scan, the bridge player does not have to ask for cards already held. The player can immediately zero in on the card, which hopefully the partner holds.

The order in which actions occur at the bridge table. In the auction, the dealer has the first action which can be a call or bid. The dealer is followed by the player to his left, followed by the dealer’s partner, and then by the declarer’s right hand opponent. Regarding the play of the hand, the player to the left of the declarer makes the initial lead, followed by declarer’s play from the tabled dummy, then by the declarer’s right hand opponent, followed with a play by the declarer. Any deviation from this clock-wise rotation in the auction or play constitutes an irregularity and the director must be summoned to clarify the situation, and assign penalties if necessary.

Roth Asking Bid
A method used by the responder, whose partner has opened the bidding at a preemptive Three Level, to clarify the holding of the preemptive bidder. Devised by Mr. Alvin Roth. An overcall of 4 Clubs asks for the following responses:

4 : Shows a bad Diamond holding and a weak values.
4 : Shows a good Heart suit and two of the top three honors.
4 : Shows a good holding and a broken Spade suit.
4 NT: Shows a solid suit and possible slam possibility.

Roth Count
The Roth Count was devised and named after Mr. Alvin Roth. This count method quantifies the point-count adjustments in evaluating the hand. It applies the 4-3-2-1 Work point-count for honor cards and the basic 3-2-1 Goren Count for shortness. It adds distributional points for long suits, and 1 point for any 6-card Major suit or for a good 6-card Minor suit. For any 7-card Major suit or for a good 7-card Minor suit, 2 distributional points are added.

Roth Four Clubs Response To Preemptive Bids on the Three Level
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth, a bridge author and theoretician, who partnered often with Mr. Jeff Rubens and Mr. Tobias Stone. The following concept was conceived by him to force the continuation of the auction following a preemptive bid by the partner on the three level in any suit. The main feature of this concept entails the desire of the responder to explore the possibilities of not only a game contract, but also the possibility of a slam contract.

Roth Hand Evaluation
Also in .pdf file format.

Roth Over No Trump
This conventional defense method was devised and developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth. This particular conventional defense method, employed after an opening of No Trump by an opponent, allows the intervenor to show weak, but distribution holdings with a 5-5 distributional pattern. The defense method also includes the possibility of showing a one-suited holding in either Major suit, but not a Minor two-suited holding.

Rothschild Contract Bridge Bidding System, The
This is a designation for a bidding system contained and explained in the publication titled The Rothschild Contract Bridge Bidding System, publisded in 1931. Library of Congress code is LC: ca 31000449. The originator and developer is assumed to be Mr. Joseph M. Rothschild. Any additional information will be greatly appreciated.

Roth Stone Astro
This is a modification of the Astro convention. A 1 No Trump opening is overcalled by an opponent and the different calls and bids mean certain features.

Roth-Stone Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone. These opening bids constituted the foundation of the Roth-Stone System, first published in 1953 and then revised and re-published in the year 1958.

Roth-Stone System
A bidding system based on sound opening bids, five-card Majors, forcing 1 No Trump responses, preemptive jump overcalls and responses, and negative doubles. Developed by Mr. Alvin Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone. Since the first publication of this system in 1953, the system has been constantly modified and re-published in their publication Bridge Is A Partnership Game, published in 1958 by E.P. Dutton of New York, New York, United States.

Roth Texas Convention
This variation of the Texas convention was developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth, and was described in his publication Picture Bidding, published in 1991 / 1992 by Granovetter Books, Los Alimitos, California, United States, ISBN-10: 0940257114 / ISBN-13: 9780940257115.
The idea of the concept is the realization that a Texas transfer bid may result in a game contract, which may catch the No Trump bidder with a very weak 2-card suit.

Roudy Convention
This conventional method is considered popular in the country of France and is applied after the responder has bid 1 Spade, which has a definite significance.


1. regarding card holdings, having a 4-3-3-3 distribution;
2. during the auction, one turn to call for each player;
3. regarding the play of a suit, which time it is led;
4. regarding a control with a number, which time the suit is played the value will prevent the opponents from winning the trick;
5. in tournament play, a period of time during which players remain at the same table;
6. in tournament play, a unit of simultaneous activities with a common goal, for example the quarterfinal round.

Round Hand
Slang: a term for a balanced holding.

Round Robin
This is a designation for a form of competition in which each of the contesting groups, generally teams, plays against each of the other groups entered in head-on competition.

Rounded Suits
The Hearts and Clubs.

Rounding Off
Scoring to the nearest full hundred, as on the back score.

A form of competition in which each of the contesting groups plays against each of the other contesting groups. The term used in England is called League.

Roudy Convention - Roudi Convention

Rover Movement

The Rover Movement can be used at any time as a distinct and separate Mitchell movement in any half-table game. But its main advantage is the case with which late pairs can be added to Mitchell movement without disrupting the game. The extra pair is designated as Rover and this extra pair becomes a moving NS pair in either straight or skip Mitchell movement. The Rover moves to designated tables during the game and replaces or bumps the N/S pair sitting at those tables for that round. Thus the bumped N/S pairs will have a sit-out round. The Rover always starts to play in N/S seats at table 2; thereafter it moves to N/S position at higher numbered tables usually skipping one table in each round. The Rover pair is given the N/S number just above the highest N/S pair. This movement based on the number of full tables in play and the half tables are not counted as an additional table. An explanation and diagrams for such a Rover movement can be found at: Rover.

Roxbury Point Bidding System
This is a bidding system described in the publication The Roxbury Point Count Bidding System of Contract Bridge, authored by Mr. Joseph J. Buckley in 1961. Details of this bidding system remain unknown since the publication is 'out of print'. Any information would be greatly appreciated.

A designation for either the King or Queen. When pluralized, both are meant.

Royal Spades
Sometimes known as Lilies. The Spade suit when scored at 9 points per trick, which occurred in an early form of bridge Whist.

The following excerpt is from the publication The Official Rules of Card Games, Hoyle Up-to-Date, 26th Edition, Printed and Published by The U.S. Playing Card Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. in the year 1922.

This variety of Auction Bridge, invented by George M. B. Hawley, of Geneva, New York, is one of the many attempts to standardize the bids and to eliminate the luck of holding certain suits by making all suits equally valuable in scoring toward game.

The suits have a double value in the bidding, one "royal" club being better thatn one club. The nullo is the highest bid, and the player who declares it may place his cards on the table and allow his partner to play the hand. In scoring toward game, the tricks are worth 10 points, regardless of the declaration.

The penalty for failure to fulfil the contract is 50 points a trick for a straight bid; 100 for failure on a "royal" bid. The trick values and penalties are increased by doubling. The game is 40 points, instead of 30, as at Auction, and there is no score for honors. Slams can be scored only when delcared in advnace, 100 for 12 tricks, 250 for 13 tricks. The rubber is worth 250 to the winners of the first two games.

A shorter designation for rubber as employed when playing the game of Whist, especially during the early evolution of the game. This designation was used generally in England and the United Kingdom.

A unit of scoring bridge games held privately or in club bridge. A rubber must consist of at least two games, but no more than three games. The first partnership to win two games wins the rubber. Special bonuses are added for winning the rubber to the total score.

The designation itself has been lost to history, but is probably borrowed from lawn bowls, which, in the first, although unwritten recording, Sir Francis Drake was playing when the Spanish Armada was sighted in 1588. He is recorded as saying: "We can finish the rubber and beat the Spaniards too."

Note: The sport of Lawn Bowl or Lawn Bowling also has a history. This sport can be traced back to the twelfth century. The sport became so popular and successful with the aristocracy and the Lords and Ladies. The popularity reached such proportions that it began to interfere with the practice of archery, which was indeed, at that time, an important activity that was used to protect the country and territories from enemies and attackers. As a result various kings in England and even the United Kingdom decided that it needed to be controlled and regulated.

During the evolution of the game of Whist, the designation was also applied to a completed match. In most dictionaries the etymology or origin is declared as unknown and the first mention of the word is given as 1599 and refers to: 1) a contest consisting of an odd number of games won by the side that takes a majority (as two out of three); 2) an odd game played to determine the winner of a tie.

The designation of rubber is employed in other sports and games such as baseball, which most experts believe was borrowed from the game of bridge. In the game of baseball the term does not necessarily and specifically refer to the third game of a tied series, but rather officially to the last and deciding game of any baseball series. For example, the seventh game of the World Series in baseball is a classic rubber game.

The origin of the designation itself, as mentioned, has been lost to history. There have been several inferences and suppositions, but perhaps the most descriptive and original theory, if not the more accurate, is the fact that a party, a player, a team eventually loses a game, a series, an event, and is in effect rubbed out. The opposition, the opponent has been rubbered, a form of verb used in Old English and presumably colloquial in usage, and which is actually no longer as such defined as a verb in today's English language. The expression has become obsolete. As an adjective the word rubber continues to be employed in certain circumstances based on the progress of technology. For example a person describes a 'bad check' as a rubber check, in the sense that the check will bounce, like the material rubber itself owing to its characteristics.

From the Internet Etymology.com online the following is included for the benefit of the more accurate in information seeking:

Rub: 1377, perhaps related to E.Fris. rubben "to scratch, rub," and Low Ger. rubbeling "rough, uneven," or similar words in Scandinavian (cf. Dan. rubbe "to rub, scrub," Norw. rubba), of uncertain origin. Hamlet's there's the rub (1602) preserves a noun sense of "obstacle, inequality on ground" first recorded 1586 and common in 17c. To rub (someone) the wrong way is from 1883. To rub noses in greeting as a sign of friendship (attested from 1822) formerly was common among Eskimos, Maoris, and some other Pacific Islanders. Rub out "obliterate" is from 1567; underworld slang sense of "kill" is recorded from 1848, Amer. Eng. Rub off "have an influence on" is recorded from 1959.

Rubber: "thing that rubs," 1536, from rub (v.). The meaning "elastic substance from tropical plants" (short for India rubber) first recorded 1788, introduced to Europe 1744 by Charles Marie de la Condamine, so called because it was originally used as an eraser.

"Very useful for erasing the strokes of black lead pencils, and is popularly called rubber, and lead-eater." (entry for Caoutchouc in, Howard, "New Royal Encyclopedia," 1788)

Meaning "overshoes made of rubber" is 1842, Amer.Eng.; slang sense of "condom" is from 1930s. Sense of "deciding match" in a game or contest is 1599, of unknown origin, and perhaps an entirely separate word. Rubberneck (v.) is attested from 1896. Rubber stamp is from 1881; fig. sense of "institution whose power is formal but not real" is from 1919; the v. in this sense is from 1934. Rubber cement is attested from 1895. Rubber check is from 1927.

Rubber Bonus
A bonus awarded to the first side scoring two games. 700 points are added if the opponents have not scored one game, and only 500 points are added if they have scored one game.

Rubber Bridge

Rubber Bridge Acol Opening Bids
These opening bids are / were employed in the northern parts of England for many years and are / were considered standard opening bids. Their present popularity or use has diminished and is limited to only a few remaining bridge clubs playing rubber bridge.

Rubber Duplicate
A form of duplicate bridge using rubber bridge scoring.

Rubens Advances
A method of using transfer responses to overcalls. This method was advocated by Mr. Jeff Rubens in The Bridge World in 1981. Any suit bids below two of the opponent’s suit are natural and forcing. There are no transfers allowed when the overcall has not used any bidding space.

This is a conventional method used by the responder and employed immediately after a competitive overcall. This conventional method uses the combination of transfers and lebensohl in competitive auctions, aimed at allowing a player to show his distribution with both weak and strong hands. This method was introduced by Mr. Bruce Neill of Australia in The Bridge World in the issue of May 1983, Volume 54, Number 8. The concept was based on the articles published in the same magazine by Mr. Jeff Rubens, who used the term Rubensohl.

Rubin Transfers
A transfer method developed by Mr. Ira Rubin to prevent the opponents from discovering a cheap sacrifice against a game or slam hand.

A 4 Clubs opening bid describes a hand containing either a long, semi-solid Major suit with 3.5 to 4 honor tricks, or a long Minor suit with 2.5 to 3 honor tricks, and no voids. The responder generally bids 4 Diamonds, the cheapest relay bid, to allow the opener to show his suit. Any Major suit response is a slam try, and Minor suit responses show a solid suit missing either the King, Queen or Jack of that suit, which the opener may raise to slam with three first-round controls.
A 4 Diamond opening bid describes a strong Major suit with 2.5 to 3 honor tricks. The bid of 4 Hearts is the normal response, whereas a response of 4 Spades shows great interest in a Heart slam. Any response in the Minor suit are cuebids, agreeing either Major suit as trump, and 4 No Trump then becomes Blackwood.
A 4 No Trump opening bid describes a strong Minor suit holding with one or more voids. The responder bids 5 Spades with three Aces or 5 No Trump with four Aces.
Any game opening bids in any of the four suits are weak preempts and deny the possession of normal high card strength. Conversely, a holding with greater than average values and the required honor trick capability can be opened on the One Level, and after any response, the opener jumps directly to game in that suit.

Rue, Thomas De La - Thomas de la Rue
Born in 1793 and died in 1866 Mr. Thomas De La Rue (sometimes De La is not capitalized in certain indices) was a pioneer printer of the Victorian period and was most definitely an historic personality for collectors of playing cards and also philatelists. He was born in Guernsey, England, in 1793, and became an apprentice at the age of ten to his brother-in-law, a master printer. In 1818 he moved to London with his family and set up shop as a paper manufacturer. Mr. Thomas De La Rue introduced letter-press printing into playing card production and his patent was granted in 1831. He produced his first playing cards in 1832.

Seal Rue

In 1844 he employed a certain Mr. Owen Jones, (1809-1874), a Welsh architect and interior designer. Apart from his painting titled Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra (1836), which was the first English chromo-lithographed work, Mr. Owen Jone is best known for his Grammar of Ornament (1856) which came to be regarded as a masterpiece, but he specialised as a color printer in the illuminated gift book beloved by the Victorians. (Note: Mr. Owen Jones played a prominent part in the lives of three generations of De La Rues - Thomas, assisting Warren and William Frederick, and finally Warren's son, the eccentric Warren William, who was sent to him to learn lithography. Mr. Owen Jones was appointed superintendent of works for the 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition.

The De La Rue company, over the years, became the principal printer of fiscal, inland revenue and postage stamps for the United Kingdom and also for the colonies. One main competitor, Charles Goodall and Son (or Co.,) were purchased by De La Rue, and this action left only one serious competitor by the name of John Waddington, Ltd. in Leeds. Practically at the beginning of World War II the printing company of De La Rue was destroyed by the bombing of London and after the war production was undertaken by John Waddington, Ltd. It was not until 1963 that the two companies decided to merge to become renamed the Amalgamated Playing Card Co., profits to be determined on a 50-50 basis. This agreement lasted until 1969 when De La Rue sold his share to John Waddington, Ltd. It was on Monday, November 30, 1970, that the entire De La Rue collection of playing cards was sold at auction by Sotheby for 12,000 Pounds to the Fournier collection of Spain.

Rueful Rabbit
A fictional character in published bridge books by author Mr. Victor Mollo, marked by a lack of comprehension, constant fretting, and incredible good fortune at the bridge table, and therefore refers to any bridge player displaying similar attributes.

1. to trump;
2. the play of a trump on the lead of another suit.

Ruff and Discard
Also known as Ruff and Sluff. In case a defender leads a suit of which both declarer and dummy are void, the declarer than has the ability to trump in one hand and discard, usually a loser, from the other hand.

Ruff and Ruff
Although it is a rare occurrence, an endgame situation can occur in which the declarer, if offered a ruff and discard, and the only winning play is to ruff in both declaring hands. Mr. Jean Besse of Switzerland was the first to describe this ruff and ruff situation.

Ruff and Sluff or Ruff and Discard
When a defender leads a suit in which both declarer and dummy are void, the declarer may ruff and sluff or discard a loser from one hand and ruff in the other.

This term refers to cards that can be trumped in the opposite hand to produce a source of tricks.

Ruffing Finesse
A manner of play in which finesse is successful if the missing honor lies behind the finesse holding. For example, opposite a holding of Ace-Queen-Jack, a finesse can be taken by leading the singleton and playing the Jack, which, if successful, gives the declarer the opportunity of discarding another card by playing the Ace.

Ruffing Trick
A trick which has been won by ruffing.

Ruff Out
To establish by ruffing.

Ruffing Value
The shortness in other suits that may lead to ruffing tricks.

Rules - More Rules - and More Rules
There are many Rules in the game of bridge. These rules pertain to a mathematically calculated formula, which provides information, or which can be the format for exchanging information, either in the bidding period or in the play period. Since the game of bridge is basically a game of chance, these rules provide a foundation, upon which decisions are based, and are, therefore, an integral part of the game. The rules should not be viewed as being 100% accurate and absolutely flawless, because they are not. We hope to introduce in time as many rules as possible, but even this will be impossible because for almost every circumstance there could be a rule. Some rules have acquired a designation, others have none.

Rule of Coincidence
This guideline or rule, generally for Tournament Directors, applies when one player has made a call which compensates for the mis-description of partner's hand. For example, a player overbids his hand by 3 high card points and partner underbids to compensate. In such a case it is apparent that an undisclosed partnership agreement exists. In the case of computer Online Bridge the designation is abbreviated to: RoC. Since the Rule of Coincidence is not a part of the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge, but rather an added and subsequent feature employed to address the situation of restoring equity among the players, this feature has been debated as to its validity and application.

Following is a published statement regarding this conduct and procedure by the ACBL NABC Appeals Department.

Rule of Coincidence
Prepared by ACBL NABC Appeals Department

The convention card is expected to reflect conventional agreements and should also display partnership style wherever possible. For example, a partnership that lists a 15 to 17 point no-trump range and tends to open most 14 point hands in third seat with one no-trump has mis-marked the convention card. You should indicate (14)15-17 on the card.

There is no infraction just because an opponent makes a call which does not match the stated conventional agreements. A player has a right to deviate from announced partnership agreements provided his partner has no awareness of the possibility of deviation. However, whenever his partner's responding action is also unexpected (and successful), there is evidence that such an awareness may exist.

The following combination of overbid and underbid is an example of the Rule of Coincidence. East, whose card is market 15-17, opens one no-trump with a balanced 14, West with 10 points decides to bid only 2NT and eight tricks are the maximum available. This lucky coincidence is the result of two improbable actions which, in combination, work . It is a violation of regulation and is subject to a score adjustment on its face.

The Rule of Coincidence could also apply to passing partner s forcing bid when he clearly didn't have the values for a forcing bid, underbidding one's values when partner has psyched, and so on.

The Rule of Coincidence allows automatic score adjustments when these infractions occur. The acting side must convince the director or committee that their actions were actually normal or that they lack the bridge experience to know they were making unusual bids. If the director or opposing side feels it is appropriate, a player memo (recorder form) may be submitted to the appropriate body. Please don t be unreasonable in applying the Rule of Coincidence. Everyone has different skill levels and card judgment. Most important is that inexperienced players be treated with consideration. They are exercising their best judgment, have no intention of doing anything wrong and DO NOT fall under the jurisdiction of the Rule of Coincidence.

38th Spring North American Bridge Championships
Phoenix, Arizona

Appeals Case 10

Subject: Miscellaneous
Event: NABC Open Pairs



North East South
- Pass Pass 1
Dbl 1NT (1) Pass Pass
2 Pass Pass Pass

(1) Alerted: Forcing for one round

Result: 2 made two, +90 for East-West.

Facts: East-West claimed that South psyched when he opened the bidding with 1 and North fielded the psych when he failed to double 2. North maintained that he thought he could go +200 by passing 2 and he feared that doubling would force East-West into a better spot (spades).

Director's Ruling: The Director ruled that North had fielded the psych and the score was changed to the better of the table result or average-plus for East-West and the worst of the table result or average-minus for North-South.

Committee Decision: The Committee believed that there were some good bridge judgment reasons for passing 2. The Committee also believed that there was a clear possibility that South would not have sat for the double of 2. Even so, how bad a spot could 2 have been? North also maintained that he would have sat if South had reopened with a double. The Committee believed this statement to be self-serving. The Committee invoked the Rule of Coincidence and the score was changed to the better of the table result or average-plus for East-West and the worst of the table result or average-minus for North-South. North-South were also warned that they were very close to receiving a penalty for bringing an appeal that was substantially without merit.

Chairperson: Alan LeBendig
Committee Members: Harvey Brody and Bruce Reeves

Rule of Eight - Rule of 8
The rule of eight was proposed by Mr. Mel Colchamiro and first published in The Bridge Bulletin of ACBL in October 2000, Page 85. When deciding to employ the rule of eight, the player first subtracts the number of Losing Tricks from the total number of cards contained in the two longest suits. The concept is based upon the result.

Rule of Eight or Rule of 8
This guideline or rule pertains to the suit quality when deciding to preempt. The player adds the number of cards in the longest suit and adds the number of honors in that suit. When the total equals eight, then the player should preempt on the two level. When the total equals nine, then the player should preempt on the three level. In evaluating the holding and deciding to make the preemptive bid or not, the player should evaluate the holding according to the following guidelines. When assessing suit quality, the Jack and the Ten are counted only if the suit also contains a higher honor such as an Ace, King, or Queen. The suit has to contain at least 6 cards. For example: J108643 has a suit quality of 6 since the suit does not contain any honor higher than the Jack. The holding of KJ8653 has a suit quality of 8, or 6 cards in length plus 2 honors. The Suit Quality Test is useful when the quality of a suit is relevant to your bidding decision. The suit quality should equal the number of tricks for which the player is bidding. Thus a weak two opening should have a suit quality of 8 or a 6-card suit plus at least 2 honors; a three level preempt should have a suit quality of 9 or a 7-card suit plus at least 2 honors or a 6-card suit plus at least 3 honors, and so on.

Rule of Eighteen - Rule of 18

Rule of Eleven - Rule of 11
The rule of eleven is another mathematical calculation, equation, formula. Its application becomes active, only when the player is absolutely certain that the lead is the fourth down from the suit lead. Once the bridge player, either defender or declarer, has ascertained this partnership agreement, then the bridge player begins counting. The principle behind the rule of eleven is the same whether the contract is a suit contract or a No Trump contract.

Rule of 11, 12, 13
This is a method of evaluating the value of 13 cards and whether to open the auction, compete in the auction, or to pass. This method was promulgated and/or devised by Mr. Richard A. Miller, the author of the books Point Count Bidding, published 1946, and which contained an evaluation method based on the Work Count for suit bidding: Aces = 4; Kings = 3, Queens = 2, Jacks = 1. It counted long suits, playing tricks, in the opening hand, assigning one point for the fifth and one point for the sixth card of a long suit, usually the opened one. To this it added the high card count, honor tricks, and suggested opening the bidding with:

11 points and six-card suit.
12 points and five-card suit.
13 points and four-card suit.

As the shape of the hand flattens out, the high card requirements go up. In effect, the opening bid is made with 13 points each time with one point each being added for the fifth and sixth card of the long suit. Shape, or distribution plays an important part in suit evaluation and the published article suggested that an opening bid may be made with 10 points in high cards when holding two 5-card suits provided that at least 8 of the points are located within the long suits. In evaluating the potential of the combined hands, partner will always assume that opener holds a minimum of 13 points, of which no more than three can be credited to the distributional factor.

Rule of Five or The Five Level Belongs to the Opponents
The origin of this particular guideline or rule is attributed to Mr. Grant Baze. This is a general guideline adopted by many bridge players and which states that if the opponents, in a competitive auction, have reached the level of five, then the conclusion is that it is better to defend. This conclusion is based on studies, experience and mathematical percentages of the average results. The same principle can also be applied to low-level contracts at the three level. It is a rule or guideline, which is based on the law of averages.

Rule of Five and Five
During the 1980s the ACBL issued a policy governing the rules and regulations of ACBL sanctioned bridge events, generally sectional and regional tournaments, that Weak Two Bids should not contain less than 5 high card points and that the suit should be a holding of five cards or more, but no less than 5 cards. This has become known as the Rule of Five and Five.

Rule of Fifteen - Rule of 15
The Rule of 15 allows the bridge player, following three consecutive passes, in the fourth seat to better determine whether or not to open the auction by bidding.

Rule of Fifteen
This is a general rule applied by the Australian Bridge Federation to govern the opening of Weak Two bids. The guideline is that the Rule of 15 allegedly requires that the total of high card points and the number of cards in the two longest suits must equal 15 or more. This guideline is more fully explained by the ABF in their following clarifying statement:

The important issue is that ABF System Regulations apply to ABF Events. State Associations and individual clubs are not obligated to impose these regulations on their club members, although many choose to do so. ABF System Regulations are not esoteric. They are posted for players at all ABF events and are available for viewing on the ABF Website. Notification of System Regulations are the responsibility of sponsoring organizations.

At club level, it is the club which should undertake this responsibility and directors should be familiar with the regulations in force for events which they are called upon to direct. The specific bid which is cited above is not in breach of any regulations if it is registered with the director as a “Yellow System”. However the use of Yellow Systems is in itself subject to regulation but no restriction would have applied in the ANOT final, which was the subject of the article. In most ABF Tournaments, the lower half of the field is protected against Yellow Systems and, in any case, the legitimacy of opponents’ bidding agreements can be raised with the director, thereby providing added protection.

Note that directors have a responsibility to ensure that players have agreements which conform to the System Regulations but are powerless if non-offenders choose not to call their attention to breaches of these regulations.

Rule of Four
This is an overall general acceptance of the belief that it is always better to play in a 4-4 fit rather than in a 5-3 fit, since the percentages of the possibility of being able to sluff several losers are higher. This also affects the bidding auction. Examples have been given to show that, when holding: S: AQ5, H: KJ74, D: A863, C: 62, and the partner opens with: 1 Spade, it is more prudent if the first response is: 2 Diamonds, instead of immediately raising partner in Spades. The possibility that the partner rebids: 2 Hearts, is present and would offer the partnership a preferable 4-4 split in Hearts with a known 5-3 split in Spades.

Rule of Fourteen - Rule of 14
This particular Rule of 14 is presented by Mr. Harold Schogger. It states that if the responder wants to reply at the two level in a lower ranking suit, i.e. 2 Clubs or 2 Diamonds over the opening 1 Spade bid of partner with very minimum hands, then the responder should use the Rule of 14 to justify responding on as few as 8 high card points. Note: a YouTube video is also included.

Rule of Fourteen - Rule of 14
In the words of the author the Rule of 14 does not assist the declarer to determine whether the conditions necessary for the squeeze to succeed exist, nor does the Rule of 14 indicate the proper technique for the execution of the squeeze. The Rule of 14 simply indicates that a squeeze is possible.

Rule of Fourteen Spade Guide - Rule of 14 Spade Guide

Rule of Nine - Rule of 9
The Rule of Nine is a concept employed by the responder after a certain and specific bidding situation. It is a guideline, which assists the player in deciding whether to continue to compete in the auction.

Rule of Nine - Rule of 9
The origin of this rule is unknwon. In certain auctions the opening bidder must determine whether to continue to compete after a low-level overcall has been made, which is then followed by two passes. The rule of nine allows the opening bidder to judge better the possibility of continuing to compete or whether to defend.

Rule of Nine - Rule of 9
The origin of this rule is unknown, but it has been attributed to Mr. Ray Depue. The source of this information is no longer available online. Any additional information would be grealy appreciated. In certain auctions the opening bidder must determine whether to continue to compete after a low-level overcall has been made, which is then followed by two passes. The rule of nine allows the opening bidder to judge better the possibility of continuing to compete or whether to defend.

Rule of 9s and 10s
The origin of this rule has been lost in bridge history and can not longer be attributed to any one bridge player or bridge author. It simple developed as a method and was included in partnership agreements as a form of defense. It is sometimes referred to as Coded 9s and 10s.

Rule of Nineteen
A rule, similar to the Rule of Eighteen as applied by the World Bridge Federation, but generally used in England to govern the limits of light opening bid and Highly Unusual Methods.

Rule of Nineteen

Rule Of N-Minus-One
This rule for squeezes was first published by Mr. Ely Culbertson in the book Red Book On Play. His definition of this rule states that the player should count the number of busy cards in the plain suits held by one opponent. This number is represented by the symbol N. Therefore, N minus 1 equals the number of uninterrupted winners the declarer needs for a squeeze.

Rule of Seven - Rule of 7
The rule of seven was created and implemented separately by two bridge personalities. One is Mr. Robert Berthe of France, who is a published author of bridge book(s). Mr. Gerald Fox of Napa, California, United States, bridge expert, teacher, and author, also independently devised the rule of seven.

Rule of Seventeen or Rule of 17
If the partner opens the auction with a Weak Two bid, the responder should add the number of high card points to the number of trumps in the holding, trumps being the suit of the Weak Two opener. If the total is at least 17 or higher, then the responder should bid game in the suit of the partner. Attributed to Mr. Zeke Jabbour.

Rule of 6-4-2 and Rule of 4-2-1
In his publication entitled More Bridge Brilliance and Blunders, 1975, Mr. Richard A. Miller published the following describing a method of Counting Ruffing Tricks in the Responding Hand. The following is an excerpt from that published work:

When partner opens the bidding and a trump suit has been established, the responder must evaluate his hand by combining his high card strength with his ruffing trick strength. Such strength may be expressed with the formula of Rule of 6-4-2 and Rule 4-2-1:

Short Suit 4 Trumps 3 Trumps
Void 6 points 4 points
Singleton 4 points 2 points
Doubleton 2 points 1 point

An additional point may be added for each trump over four. With two short suits, count only one, the shorter. The additional short suit is already counted in assigning one point to any length in the trump suit over four.

Ruffing or trumping values as shown in this table are counted by the responder only on the assumption that partner will become the declarer and his bid suit will be trump. Should subsequent bidding place the contract in No Trump, count assigned to ruffing tricks must be deleted and replaced with high card count and long suit count.

On the other hand, if the responder should originate a suit and become the declarer, the long cards are counted and the opener, who now is dummy, will count his ruffing tricks.

Notice that this count is the only one now in use that differentiates specifically between holding four trumps as against three trumps. That one trump, the fourth, can mean maximum efficiency in ruffing power and optimum contracts. The loss of the fourth trump can and does reduce the ruffing potential of the dummy hand and therefore the difference must be acknowledged in the basic formula.

The Rosetta stone from which these evaluation tables were derived is Charles H. Goren's The Standard Book of Bidding, published in 1944.

Rule Of Sixteen or Rule of 16
The rule of sixteen is similar to the rule of fifteen. The player in fourth seat after three passes should count his high card points and add them to the number of Spades in his hand, and if the total is 16 or more, then he should open, even with less than a normal opening.

Rule of Sixteen or Rule of 16
This guideline or rule is employed by bridge partnerships in determining whether to raise a 1 No Trump opening to 3 No Trump. The responder counts the number of high card points and the number of cards beginning with the 8 and higher. If the sum of the high card points and the number of cards 8 and higher equals the number 16 or higher, then the responder should raise immediately to 3 No Trump or after employment of the Stayman and/or Jacoby Transfer conventional methods. As a result of this, the natural response of 2 No Trump by the responder may be employed for other purposes by the partnership.

Rule of Ten - Rule of 10
This mathematical concept originated back in the days of the game of Whist. This rule allows the partner, who leads the first card, to determine the distribution of that suit among all four players. The name of the originator is lost to history.

Rule of Ten - Rule of 10
This particular guideline, called also the rule of ten, applies to a competitive auction when one player contemplates to employ a penalty double even though the opponents have not bid a game contract.

Rule of Three Queens
In the Bridge World magazine issue of March, 2003, Mr. Danny Kleinman expressed the Rule of Three Kings, which states that the bridge player "be alert to the possibility of playing in No Trump when a suit contract seems obvious and to let the possession of Queens sway the bridge player in close cases. Or, when the bridge player has 3 (or 4) Queens, make an extra effort to play in No Trump".

Rule of Thirteen or Rule of 13
This guideline or rule is applied when considering opening with a strong, artificial 2 bid, when the high card points of the holding do not exceed 22 high card points and the question remains whether to open with one of a suit or with a strong, artificial 2 bid. The concept is based upon adding the number of total defensive tricks and multiply by two. Defensive tricks are determined according to the following:

Ace: 1
Ace/King: 2
King/Queen: 1
King/x: 1/2
Queen/Jack/x: 1/2

Once this tally has been accomplished, then the player should add all length cards of more than three in a suit to the result. If this final result is then 13 or more, then the player should open with a strong, artificial 2 bid.

Rule of Twelve - Rule of 12
The re-popularization of this lead from the era of Whist is attributed to Mr. Sven Welith and Mr. Seth Wenneberg, both from Sweden. Similar to the rule of eleven, which may determine the play of a card by partner, who knows that the lead card is the fourth highest card down as per partnership agreement, the rule of twelve is a mathematical calculation from the days of playing Whist when the lead card is the third highest card.

Rule of Twenty - Rule of 20
This guideline or method, named the Rule of 20, is a method in determining whether a holding containing fewer than the standard 12 plus high card points is, despite this fact, worthy of an opening bid.

Rule Of Twenty-Two
The Rule of 22 is based on the Rule of 18 of the World Bridge Federation, for a player determining whether to open light. The player should add the combined length of the two longest suits to the high card point count. The player should always open if the total is 22 or more. If the total is 20 or 21, the hand should have at least 2 defensive tricks. Opening with a total of 19 or less is not allowed.

Rule of Twenty-Six
Devised by Mr. Harold Schogger as a concept to explore strongly for slam contracts after a Splinter bid by the partner as a first response.

Rule of Two
This is a guideline, which states that if the declarer is missing two touching honors, then it is preferable to finesse first for the lower honor. The possibility that there could be individual and special circumstances where this action would be incorrect is present. However, the mathematical percentages offer a higher success rate, as in the following examples:

Dummy: AQ10
Declarer: 542

The Rule of Two states that the declarer should first The Rule of Two states that thee the Ten for the maximum number of possible tricks.

Dummy: KJ1084
Declarer: 6432

The Rule of Two states that the declarer should first finesse the Jack.

Rule of Two and Three
The rule of two and three is a method of determining the better score. As proposed by Mr. Ely Culbertson for preemptive openings and overcalls, the partnership should be within two tricks of their contract, if vulnerable and deciding to sacrifice for the sake of a better score. If the partnership, however, loses three tricks while not vulnerable, then the partnership can also achieve a better score.

Rule of Two, Three and Four - Rule of 2,3,4
This concept expansion has been added to the concept of the Rule of Two and Three when deciding to preempt. The origin in unknown, but its effectiveness can prove advantageous under certain bidding circumstances.

Rule Of X-Plus One
This is a mathematical formula, devised by Mr. Ely Culbertson, to help in planning the play when the contract is No Trump. By an attempt to establish the long cards in a suit, estimate the number of losing tricks in the suit before it can be established and call it X. Add 1 to this number. The result is the number of stoppers in the opponent’s long suit needed to be able to turn the long cards into winning tricks.

There are certain mathematical calculations which enter into the bidding, the play and the defense procedure. These calculations are important in their application and should be used under the correct circumstances. They help in deciding which card to play, which defense and which offense strategy to use, and they keep the Line of Communication open, especially between the opponents. They should be used with accuracy due to their effectiveness. They can make the difference between a made contract or a set contract.

An adjudication by the tournament director or committee after an irregularity has occurred at a bridge tournament. When playing rubber bridge, it is the application of the applicable law agreed upon by the players.

Ruling Out Of The Book
At all bridge events ranging from the clubs to international events, the director should have available a Law book containing the Laws Of Duplicate Bridge. If an irregularity occurs, then the director can quote the corresponding passage from the book. In this manner, the director is not quoting from memory and/or not just giving his opinion, but quoting directly from the Law book.

Rumble versus Big One Club

1. to play off winners in a suit;
2. to escape to a new strain, particularly after being doubled in a different one.

Runouts After 1 No Trump
See: Twisted Swine or Runouts After 1NT - Dbl or Runouts After 1 No Trump - Double or Swine Runouts

Run Out Of Trumps
To use up or exhaust all of the trumps, either by the declarer or in the hands of the opponents.

Rusinow Leads - Rusinow Lead
The principle behind Rusinow Leads is simply the leading of the second-ranking of touching honors. Rusinow Leads are used only on the first trick against a suit contract in a suit, which the partner has not bid during the auction, if at all. It is uncommon to employ the Rusinow Leads also against a No Trump contract since the purpose of the lead against a No Trump contract is entirely different in nature, but it is not illegal.

Russian Bridge League - Russian Bridge League (only in Cyrillic letters)

Ruth, George Herman - Babe Ruth