PABF or The Pacific Asia Bridge Federation
Also: Pacific Asia Bridge Federation. This is the official site for all members of the Zone Six of the World Bridge Federation. It is an organization formed in 1957 as Far East Bridge Federation to administer bridge activities in the respective geographical area. It was later renamed to Pacific Asia Bridge Federation. The PABF comprises World Bridge Federation Zone 6 and includes 12 members including, China, China Hong Kong, China Macau, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.

Pachabo Club
Promoted in England by Mr. Whitelaw, as reported by Mr. Howard Schenken. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Pacific Bridge League
This was an organization founded and promoted by Mr. Tom Stoddard in 1933. The Pacific Bridge League was an organization founded by Mr. Tom Stoddard in 1933. The organization continued to be developed by Mr. Tom Stoddard throughout the fifteen years of its existence. The official operations of the Pacific Bridge League ceased in the year 1948/9, although final arrangements were effective first in 1956 through the incorporation. The Pacific Bridge League included the eleven far-western States, plus the territories of Hawaii and Alaska and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Mr. Earl Ackerman was the President of the Pacific Bridge League from 1942 to 1945.

The Pacific Bridge League quickly reached a membership numbering in the thousands, and promoted two major tournaments, in addition to many minor tournaments and bridge events. The All-Western tournament was conducted first in Los Angeles, California, United States, in 1935, and Bridge Week in 1936. Bridge Week was conducted half in Los Angeles, California, and half in San Francisco, California, United States.

Collaboration between the American Contract Bridge League and the Pacific Bridge League began in 1940 as soon as a uniform masterpoint system(s) was negotiated and agreed upon. A closer affiliation was planned in 1948 when the time, efforts, and services of Mr. Tom Stoddard were recognized. He was named President Emeritus of the American Contract Bridge League's Western Division, with permanent status on the Executive Committee. The final merger of both Leagues were finalized by Mr. Tom Stoddard and by Mr. Waldemar von Zedtwitz, and became effective for both Leagues on January 1, 1956.

Pacific Northwest Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament, conducted over six days, and held annually since 1949 in Alaska, British Columbia, or in the state of Washington, United States. Also prior to the year 1967 the tournament was conducted also in Oregon. From the beginning the tournament was conducted at a time that it coincided with the birthday of George Washington, the first President of the United States, but only until 1958. Starting in 1959 the tournament was conducted in the early fall, and starting in 1968 the tournament was conducted either in late May or early April.

During the years from 1963 and 1967 the tournament was conducted twice annually, once in the spring and once in the fall. The designation for the tournament conducted in the spring was not always identical or regular since it was also known as the Polar-Canadian Regional, or Polar, Canadian, British Columbia Centennial, and also as Vancouver, but the tournament was designated in 1968 as the Pacific Northwest Regional when the tournament, which was conducted in the fall, was replaced by the Canadian and Puget Sound Regionals.

Pacific Southwest Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament, conducted over six days, and held annually in Coronado, California, United States, beginning in the year 1946. Beginning with the year 1968 the tournament was conducted in Anaheim, California, United States.

A deck of cards with a specific number of cards consisting of a specific composition. The nature of a pack of cards depends on the date and on the country of origin.

A portion of the deck held together, as in gathering tricks, or in dividing the cards for shuffling purposes.

Pagan 3 Clubs Response to 1 Heart or 1 Spade Opening Bid
The origin of this response is unknown. This first response to a Major suit opening bid by partner has a double meaning and shows either 1. a Limit Raise with a 4-card support, or 2. a natural strong jump shift in Clubs. The actual meaning of this first response is revealed in the ensuing auction. Source: Orange Book EBU 2002, Section 13.2.2.

A term to describe one partnership; two players acting as partners; North-South or East-West.

A duplicate-bridge tournament or event in which the players compete as pairs.

Pairs Events - General Condition of Contest

Pajama Game
A duplicate bridge session with many Tops and Bottoms. The designation is also employed sometimes for a midnight session.

Pakistan Bridge Federation or PBF
The Pakistan Bridge Federation (PBF) is the national governing body for all duplicate bridge activities in Pakistan. Founded in 1972, as Pakistan Bridge Association in Karachi, it obtained affiliation with Pakistan Sports Board in 1979, which confirmed bridge as a recognized sport by the Government of Pakistan. It became the founder member of the Bridge Federation of Africa, Asia & the Middle East (BFAAME) in 1981, which now boasts of 22 member countries and is represented as Zone 4 of the World Bridge Federation. In 1985, we hosted the 3rd Zonal Championships in Karachi. Then, in 1993, we became officially known as Pakistan Bridge Federation.

Slang: a very poor player.

Panama: Asociacion Panamena de Bridge - Contacts

A defensive bidding system against the Forcing Club. Any bids at the Two Level show either a weak jump overcall in the suit bid or a three-suiter with shortage in the bid hand.

Pan American Bridge Championships
The first Pan American Bridge Championships and Pan American Games were held in June, 1992, in Corpus Christi, Texas, and sponsored by the World Bridge Federation.

Pan American Invitational Championships
An invitational pair championship, which was first conducted in 1974 in Mexico City, Mexico. The scoring system was IMPs. This competition was discontinued in 1978.

Slang: a colloquial term in the bridge community to describe a flat distribution of 4-3-3-3, very similar to the appearance of a pancake. Other various designations include flat, round, koala.

Panther Double
Described, devised, promoted, and published by Mr. Zia Mahmood in the year 1993. The panther double is considered a psychological double, which may cause the opposing side to consider a less secure contract. As the prey runs from the panther, so may the opponent run from the better contract. The presentation is in .pdf file format, which will be automatically opened in a new window. This information can be found on the Internet and has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Pannol Bidding System
The development and invention of this bidding system was accomplished by Mr. James Wanless and Ms Claire Gilman, who are the copyright holders, and which they present on the Internet at the provided link. The article begins with the following explanation: Always bid the safest, highest scoring bid you expect to make, given average distribution of cards among the unseen hands, in the absence of, or taking into account, any information from your partner's bid(s). Also in .pdf file format for future reference only.

The result on a deal on which both sides do as well as possible.

Paradox Principle
Dr. Chris Ryall
devised this method and it is a call or bid of the suit you do not hold when length in one of two suits has been shown or implied by partner's bid, generally when the partnership expects to subside in one of these suits. These bids are also referred to as paradox responses / advances. They can be viewed on his website.

Paraguay - Asociation Paraguaya de Bridge
Contact Address
Chaco Boreal 381
Telephone: 595-21-611 302
Facsimile: 595-21-601 168

Par Contest
A bridge tournament using prepared hands, each of which has an already predetermined optimum or par result. The results of the players are then compared with par, rather than with each other.

Slang: Partner.

Par Hand
A bridge hand prepared in advance for use in a Par Contest.

1. the evenness or oddness of a suit length;
2. equal length, as with another player's length.

Parkes Two Spades Opening Bid - Parkes 2 Spades
The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is frequently a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values may be less than an opening count or exceedingly strong and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Parking Lot Redoubles
The source for this particular double is The Bridge World, June 1987, Volume 58, Number 9, and authored by Mr. Jerold Fink.

Partial Designation
A term for the incomplete request by the declarer for a card to be played from the dummy. If only the suit is named, then the lowest card in that suit must be played. If a card is named but not a suit, the card becomes ambiguous, and the card must be taken from the suit previously led, if at all possible.

Partial Elimination

Partial Stopper
A partial stopper is officially defined as a suit holding, that will provide a stopper, if and only if partner has a holding in the same suit or category. For example, a singleton Queen, a doubleton Queen, a tripleton Jack, four cards to the ten, five cards to the nine, or six cards to the eight. Note that other official definitions require that a partial stopper must be at least a doubleton Queen. According to this definition a singleton Queen does not constitute a partial stopper.

Partscore Bonus
This designation applies to the 50 points given for fulfilling a partscore contract in duplicate competition.

Partial Score
A partscore, used generally in rubber bridge, but applied to any score below that of game.

The other member of one's partnership. It also refers to the act of being the second member of a partnership, as in North partnered with South or x partnered with z..

Partnership Rubber Bridge
A form of rubber bridge, whereby players retain the same partner throughout the entire session of the play and rubber after rubber.

Partner’s Suit
The suit bid or rebid by the player seated opposite during the bidding process.

1. one of the two competing teams of two players;
2. the totality of understandings between two players.

Partnership Agreement Between A Bridge Playing Couple
In the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published in 1955, the suggestion is strongly made that a bridge-playing couple have an Agreement. One possible wording of such an Agreement was made by Mr. Lee Brandt, of whom little is known. This example of an Agreement has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The original can be found in the publication.

Partnership Bidding
The description of an auction in which the opponents do nothing except pass.

Partnership Understanding

A trick score of less than 100; less than game; fewer than 100 points scored below the line, but also applied to any score below that of game. In general, a term used by rubber bridge players and duplicate bridge players alike.

Partscore Bonus
In duplicate competition, 50 points are scored as bonus for fulfilling a partscore contract. In Chicago, a bonus of 100 points is given for a partscore contract successful on the last hand.

Party Bridge - These are private bridge games consisting of two tables, although there are variations for only one table with four players. A so-called four-deal method is normally employed, which is sometimes referred to as Chicago. After each round each player enters on his/her tally sheet only his/her net gain or loss, not the total score. After the session has been completed, then these net gains and losses are totaled and the final score of the individual player, whether plus or minus, is entered on the tally sheet. These sessions are more or less governed by the Laws of Party Contract Bridge and should be conducted accordingly. However, such sessions may, and generally are, altered and/or varied to meet the requirements of the host. It is not necessary that a certified bridge director be present at such sessions. Irregularities are ascertained and resolved generally by the host.

Party Bridge - An Internet book has been written by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego and specifically for the Party Bridge Player. This book contains many guidelines and suggestions, rules and regulations, definitions and movements for Party Bridge players such as: Chicago, Rubber Bridge, Games for Individuals, Games for Fixed Partnerships, Marathons, Social Duplicate Bridge, Duplicate Bridge Games for Individuals, Duplicate Games for Fixed Partnerships, Duplicate Games for Teams-of-Four, Calcuttas. This is a .pdf file and will automatically be opened by your browser without being downloaded to your computer.

1. a call indicating no desire to bid, double, or redouble at that turn;
2. to make such a call;
3. after leading from declarer's hand or dummy, to play a smaller card from the opposite hand when a higher card was available.

Pass and Pull
In general, the act of making a forcing pass first and then bidding over partner's double. For example:

North   East   South   West (D)
1   2   3   5
Pass   Pass   Double   Pass

In this example the pass by North is forcing (a forcing pass) and South doubles (keeping the auction alive) so that the situation can be clarified with the pull of 5 Spades by West indicating a stronger holding than bidding 5 Spades directly over the 5 Diamonds bid by West.

Passed Hand
A player who passed when given the opportunity to open the bidding, therefore one who has denied having the values required to open.

Passed Out
A deal in which all four players pass on the first round of bidding. The score is then zero. This term is also applied to the action of the player who, after two passes, declines to reopen the bidding or balance.

Passel Preempt with Four of a Minor
In the early 1960s Mr. Bill Passel invented a conventional method, which involved the transfer to a Major suit. After an opening bid of a Minor suit either by partner of by the right hand opponent, a leap or jump to 4 Clubs promised a long, strong Heart suit and a jump to 4 Diamonds promised a long, strong Spade suit. The purpose for the transfer is to have the hand of the preemptor tabled as dummy and the hand of the partner hidden. Although this particular conventional method has not become readily adopted by the bridge community in the United States, it has achieved some popularity with bridge players from Canada and Mexico. The following illustrations clarifies the strategy behind this conventional method.

North   East   South   West (Dealer)
1   Pass   4   Pass
4   Pass   Pass   Pass

North, as the declarer, will be able to take eleven tricks. East is on lead and has no problem finding the Club lead. The defense takes the first two tricks and North/South scores up 650. At every other table South is the declarer, also at 4 Spades, and no West found a Club lead. With the Queen dropping doubleton, the South declarer takes all 13 tricks for 710.

Pass or Correct Bid
In certain bidding sequences one partner requests partner to pass or bid differently based on the holding. Such bids are sometimes features of and dependent on multi-purpose bids and/or openings. One partner, generally the responder, is requested to either pass with support or the other partner, who initiated the multi-purpose bid and/or opening, corrects to the intended suit. Such Pass or Correct bids are features of the Multi 2 Diamonds system, the Crash convention, and other. They are not to be confused with Preference Bids. See also: Paradox Responses and Convertible Bids

Pass Out Of Rotation
An irregularity in the bidding auction, which can occur in three different situations, and that is when it is the turn of the other three players to make a call or bid. Since unauthorized information can become a factor is such a situation, the prescribed penalties can vary. See Law 30 and Law 31.

Passive Defense
A defense tactic aimed principally to avoid establishing tricks for the declarer, rather than principally establishing tricks for the defense. This action is a style of defense, that attempts to avoid establishing tricks for the declarer as opposed to trying actively to establish defensive tricks. This style of passive defense is most likely to be the correct action when the dummy contains a flat distribution, and lacking any source of tricks. To defend passively the player would usually play on suits, where his holding is practically worthless, or where the previous play of the suit has already determined how many tricks each side can make in that suit.

Passive Lead is
An opening lead which is unlikely to hurt the defending side. Generally used when any other lead would assist the declarer.

Pass Or Correct
Regarding a call, a request that partner either pass or make an alternative call, depending on the, as yet unspecified, hand type held. For example: after an opening bid of 2 Diamonds to show a weak two-bid in Spades or Hearts, a 2 Heart response is pass-or-correct: opener passes with Hearts or bids 2 Spades with Spades.

Pass Out
1. to make the fourth consecutive pass, so that the cards are thrown in and dealt again;
2. to make the third consecutive pass, so that the last bid becomes the final contract;
3. the position in which a pass will end the auction.

Passout Seat
The position of any given player, who can terminate the auction by passing.

A term which refers to the cards.

Patents for Bridge Equipment, Devises, Etc.
We have found several patents relating to the game of bridge and also to the game of Whist. This has been accomplished with the feature offered by Google called Google Scholar. We have listed our findings below.

Bridge Game For Two Or Three) - This is the designation for a card game, on which Mr. William Weigl of Troy, Ohio, has as of Issue Date, February 3, 1981, a patent (4,248,434), which was filed October 18, 1979. The Abstract states: Bridge game for two or three players who competitively bid for a face-down dummy hand which is incapable of verbal response but is capable of providing an approximate point count, indication of the suits of the majority of cards thereof and the specific number of Aces and Kings therein when called upon to do so, all without having any markings on the backs of said cards from such information can be determined. The history and instructions for the correct procedure of bidding and play are described by the inventor in the issued patent. Found on the Internet via Google Scholar.

Contract Bridge Game Card - Filed October 17, 1933. Issued July 2, 1935. Patent Number: 2,006,521. Inventors: Mr. Julian E. Stone, New York, assignor of one-half to Mr. Michael Freiman, Farmingdale, New York, with Mr. James F. Duhamel (Attorney). Serial No. 693,973. This invention relates to playing cards and more especially to a pack of cards adapted for use in the game of contract bridge whist and containing the usual fifty two cards to comprise the deck, the object of the invention being to eliminate certain picture cards such as the aces, kings, queens and jacks and the ten spot and substituting therefore cards having certain numerals or combinations of numerals.

The hand distribution.

Pattern Out
The act of determining the most likely suit distribution of a player, including that of the partner.

Pearson Points

Peggy Bayer Trophy
See: The Home International Series

1. the points awarded to the defenders when declarer fails to fulfill his contract;
2. a remedy for an infraction provided by the laws
3. an obligation or restriction imposed upon a side for violation of a Law or regulation.

Penalty Card
A card that is, for whatever reason, prematurely exposed by a defender, which must remain face up on the table until it can legally be played or be permitted to be picked up. Distinctions are made between Major Penalty Cards and Minor Penalty Cards. The declarer never has any penalty card. See Laws: 23, 49-52, 54, 56-58, 62.

Penalty Double
The origin of the penalty double is unknown. However, it is known that the penalty double is older than the organized game of bridge with its scoring methods devised in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In the card games preceding such scoring methods the penalty double was effective in acquiring a larger score and was mainly devised to painfully punish their opponents for their audacity in competing.

Penalty Pass
The pass of a double not intended as a penalty double. A pass by a player after a takeout double from his partner and a pass by the right hand opponent. This pass could possibly be the result of holding length and strength in the doubled suit of the opponent.

In 1991 the ACBL commissioned Mr. Fred Gitelman, a Toronto programmer, to develop a computer vugraph program with a grant from the estate of Mr. Peter Pender. The vugraph was subsequently named the PenderGraph. The PenderGraph debuted at the Summer NABC in Las Vegas, where the final of the Spingold Knockout Teams was shown to a huge audience. In 1993 Gitelman wrote a new PenderGraph program to work under the Windows operating system, enhancing and enlarging the graphics and adding features that distinguished the PenderGraph as the top program of its kind.

Penultimate Leads
This is a concept of leading to the first trick either in the game of Whist or in the game of bridge and is attributed to Cavendish, which is a pseudonym under which Mr. Henry Jones penned many original works on the games.

The following is quoted from the publication by Mr. George William Pettes, aka G.W.P., from his publication American Whist Illustrated: Containing The Laws and Principles of the Game, The Analysis of the New Play and American Leads, and a Series of Hands in Diagram, 1890, as published by Houghton, Mifflin, and Company / The Riverside Press, Cambridge, pages 105-106.

Again, there are players who consider one of the American leads to be but a sort of completion or perfection of the penultimate once in use. The principle and plan of one method are all unlike those of the other. The penultimate of Cavendish advised simply that there was a card remaining in the hand lower than that led, not matter how many higher. The American lead informs that there are exactly three cards higher than the card led, no matter how many lower. The second lead from the penultimate play gave no indication of the quality or number of high cards left. The second lead by the American play gives information of both.

For instance, A. holds K,10,8,7,6,4,2 of a suit. Cavendish led the 4 or the 6. There are one or two lower, but how many higher? On the second lead, according to the fall of the cards, any one of the rest is played. What cards remain? The American lead is the 7: there must be three higher. The second lead depends upon the general play, but whatever it is, the remaining high cards are read.

The lead by Cavendish was wise, did its work, and had its day; that of Trist is wiser, is doing its work, and will be of avail as long as cards are played.

End of quoted passage. The full name of Trist in the text is Nicholas Browse Trist from New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.

People's Republic of China
The game of bridge was banned in the country of China for over 30 years, but in 1979 staged a come-back. In 1979, the All China Sports Federation formed the All China Contract Bridge League.

A quotient obtained by dividing the actual matchpoint score of a contestant by the possible score of that contestant, which is then expressed as a percentage of the possible score.

Percentage Play
This is a strategic play, either in defense or as the declarer, which is influenced by certain mathematical factors and percentages, when more than one line of play is possible. Depending on the auction and the ensuing play of the hand, it becomes evident that a certain play could obtain a better percentage result of success than another play. These percentages have been calculated as to their probabilities.

These are mathematical calculations of percentages, probabilities and possibilities of the cards having a certain distribution, upon which the play is based by the declarer and/or the defenders, and which influence the decision to play in a certain manner.

Perfect Bridge Hand

Slang: A descriptive adjective to describe a holding consistent with the bidding sequence, which has exactly the values and suit length necessary to make a designated and expected contract desirable, be it partscore, game or slam.

Permanent Trump
At Whist, a variation in which club card committees or other governing bodies declared a suit to be trump for all games under their jurisdiction. The rules of Whist provided that the trump suit would be the suit of the last card dealt by the dealer to himself.

All the possible arrangements of the cards, usually the residue of a suit given the cards in two hands.

Personal Bridge Websites
This is a list of many of the online bridge-related websites of individual and/or groups of individuals, who have taken the time and made the effort to provide information regarding the game of bridge to the bridge player online.

Personality of the Year
This Award is presented annually by the International Bridge Press Association and was known as The Charles H. Goren Award until 1989. Beginning in the year 1990, the award has been strictly an award presented by the International Bridge Press Association.

Peru - Comision National de Bridge
Contact Address
Av. Jorge Basadre 475
27 Lima
Telephone: 51-14 419 995
Facsimile: 51-14-423 138

The term is an old expression, designation from the era of Whist and describes a demand or request for a trump to be led by partner and not for the the immediate suit to be continued. See Blue Peter

Peter Pender Trophy
The Peter Pender trophy, donated by Mr. Peter Pender, is awarded to the winners of the ACBL Junior Bridge Championship (Team Trials) held every two years at the Summer NABC.

Note: The interested visitor should review the blog articles of Judy Kay-Wolff and Robert (Bobby) Wolf about the Pendergaffe. An excerpt of the authored entry follows for clarification:

Peter’s first donation (before his death) of $27,500 was for the Peter Pender Trophy awarded to the winner of the Junior Trials. That money was intended to be used for engraved replicas to be presented to the winners. His request was honored for the first few years but we have learned it cratered and lapsed into obscurity for the last fifteen years.

Petersen System Of Contract Bidding, The
This is the designation provided by the developer, Mr. Nils Petersen, to his bidding system and published in his book titled The Petersen System Of Contract Bridge Bidding, which was published in the year c1940 in Dodge City, Kansas, United States, LC: 40007436. Additional information would be greatly appreciated.

Petty, Little Odious Bid
A designation also known under the acronym of PLOB. See: PLOB below. The origin of the concept and the origin of the designation are unknown.

Phantom Pair
An imaginary pair deemed present to complete a tournament movement. The contestant scheduled to play against the Phantom Pair has a bye round.

Phantom Sacrifice
A sacrifice bid against a contract which would have been defeated anyway. It is a sacrifice bid when the contract against which one is sacrificing would fail. Taking out a phantom sacrifice is often, in reality, a somewhat costly action, which could result in turning a plus score into a potentially sizable minus score. Before making a phantom sacrifice, therefore, it is most prudent to check, by inference or by one's holding, that one is confident that the opponents can make the final contract.

Philippine Tournament Bridge Association
Also: Phillipine Tournament Bridge Association
The Philippine Contract Bridge League, founded in 1957, is the national governing body for organized bridge activities. It is formally affiliated with the Pacific-Asia Bridge Federation (of which it is a founding member) and the World Bridge Federation. It participates yearly in the ASEAN Bridge Club Championships.

The PCBL is based in Makati City, in the National Capital Region, with one subsidiary unit in Baguio City. Most of its activities take place in the Metro Manila area where the majority of its membership resides. There are currently about 200 members.

Tournaments on the national and regional level are held fortnightly by the PCBL. It sends out a bi-monthly PCBL Newsletter to its members, runs three franchised weekly duplicates, and maintains records of Master Points won at PCBL tournaments and franchised games.

The Philippines has been host to five Zonal Championships, starting with the first one in 1957. In 1977, Manila was the site of the Bermuda Bowl. Manila has also hosted three ASEAN Bridge Club Championships.

Philip Morris Championships
The Philip Morris Corporation sponsors European bridge competitions such as open pairs in odd-numbered years, mixed pairs and mixed teams in even-numbered years.

Philip Morris Europa Cup
The Europa Cup, with the support of Philip Morris, was held for the first time in the year 1979. The tournament was conceived as a competition between the national club champions of all EBL member countries. Countries were placed in regional qualifying heats, from which the winners went on to the European final. The event suffered because many countries, that do not hold inter-club competitions, simply sent their national teams instead. This created an uneven playing field and defeated the purpose of the event, which was ultimately discontinued after 1988. Note: the concept was revived, in a different format, with the introduction of the European Champions' Cup in the year 2002.

Year Event Venue Winners - Open
1979 1 Rome, Italy Poland
1981 2 Sanremo, Italy Sweden
1984 3 Malmo, Sweden Poland
1986 4 Paris, France


1988 5 Copenhagen , Denmark Austria

Phone Number
Slang: a penalty in four digits;
Slang: any large penalty.

Phony Club
See: Short Club.

Phony Diamond
See: Short Diamond.

Slang: a hand which presents no problem to the declarer in fulfilling the contract. A hand that almost plays itself. The name is taken from the musical player piano, which would play by itself after installing the metal disk with the punched holes corresponding to the keys on the piano.

Pick Up
1. to capture during the play;
2. to play a suit without loss, or with minimal loss;
3. to play with a recently met partner; not through pre-arrangement;
4. to collect from a table in a tournament. For example: a pickup slip is a paper on which the result of each deal in a tournament is recorded.

Pickup Slip
Any physical form devised for the recording of the result on the play of one board on one round. Generally, North (or South) player has the responsibility of entering this result and East and/or West has the responsibility of checking this entry. The information entered on this physical form include:

1. Identifying number of the player and/or pair.
2. The board number.
3. Which pair was the declarer.
4. The final contract.
5. Contract by which player.
6. Doubled, Redoubled, or Undoubled.
7. The result as:
  a. trick-score,
  b. extra tricks,
  c. game bonus,
  d. doubled bonus,
  e. partscore bonus,
  f. slam bonus,
  g. undertrick score

Picture Bid
A bid that shows specific values or types of values, rather than general strength or overall hand-type. For example: a jump in a suit to show values concentrated in that suit is a picture bid.

Picture Echo Calling
This is a designation for a bidding system or conventional method listed in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955. During the early evolution of the game of bridge there occurred a proliferation of many such bidding systems. However, many have been forgotten and were discarded for the newest version of another bidding system. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated

Pictures of Bridge Players
We have attempted to compile the pictures of bridge players for the curious among us. We hear the names, but we can not put a face to the name. Please be aware that this is a larger web page which may take some time to load.

Picture Card
A King, a Queen, or a Jack.

Slang: a partscore;
Slang: referring to a high honor as in "a piece in Spades" means a high honor in Spades. The term may also simply, and colloquially, refer to any card in Spades.

Pig's Eye
A colloquial term to define the Ace of Diamonds. Origin unknown.

To lead a card in order to cause a lower-ranking card to drop underneath, especially when there are yet higher cards of the suit outstanding. This play can be either executed by the declarer or defender.

Ping Pong Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is to assist the opener to further clarify his holding when the first rebid by the opener is 1 No Trump, which can signify various hand types.

Pink Points
An obsolete term for Regional Points. It was at one time applied to distinguish points won at a Regional Tournament from those won at a National Tournament, where Red Points were awarded.

Pinpoint Astro Defense Method
Using these modifications or variants of the original Astro conventional defense method, the overcall may have a better possibility of conveying a more accurate description of any two-suited holding to partner.

A system which was devised, developed and played for many years by Mr. Johan Bennet and Mr. Anders Wirgren. It is based on Super Standard, which in turn evolved from Modern Standard. It is a basically natural system, but with many gadgets and lots of new ways of thinking. The basic structure is very logical though, which makes it easy for its users, but difficult for the opponents.

1. A design or logo on each card indicating the suit to which it belongs. The Spade suit shows the Spearhead, the Heart suit shows the heart, the Diamond suit shows a diamond-shaped tile, and the Club suit shows the cloverleaf. The Spot Cards have as many pips as the rank of the card indicates. The pips vary according to the country of origin.
2. Slang: meaning to narrowly outrank, as on a trick, or defeat by the narrowest possible margin.

Piquet or Picquet
This is the designation for a card game played by two persons with a deck of 32 cards. The cards from the deuce to the six are eliminated from a normal 52 card deck. The seven is the lowest card and the Ace is the highest ranking card. Each player receives 12 cards, and eight cards are left on the table face down. The non-dealer (designated as the minor) discards from one to five cards and picks up an equal number from the table. The dealer (designated as the major) is entitled to exchange the remaining number of cards. Trumps are not named.

After the draw from the table, the hands are compared and points are given for point (the most cards in a suit), sequence (longest sequence), and highest set of three or four of a kind. Carte blanche, a hand without a face card, also scores points. Play of cards from the hands follows with points scored for tricks won. One hundred points wins. There are variations for three or four hands. Piquet was established by the 16th cent., was popular in France, Spain, and Italy, and spread to England under the name cent (one hundred).

Note: See also quart major and also quart minor.

Slang: the execution of playing discard;
Slang: the act of discarding;
Slang: the act of losing a trick and/or contract through an error, especially through an obvious error.

Pitch Count
An obsolete name for the 4-3-2-1 Point Count.

Pitt Coup
The Pitt coup is a play, by which the declarer places himself in a position to lead through his left hand opponent in a suit, in which the dummy holds a Major tenace over the left hand opponent's Minor tenace.

1. The designation for the player who remains in the same physical position at the table in a sequence of rubbers or chukkers;
2. The designation for the player, if any, who remains stationary in a Howell Movement;
3. The act of changing partners during a bridge session;
4. In pertaining to a suit the term describes a situation whereby the suit is guarded or potentially guarded by both opponents, as in a double-squeeze matrix.

Pivot Bridge
A form of social bridge where, instead of advancing from table to table as in party or progressive bridge, the players change or pivot among themselves at each individual table. Mr. Milton C. Work wrote the book Auction Bridge Complete - The Latest Official Laws of Auction Bridge and Also The Official Laws of Progressive Bridge and Pivot Bridge and The Laws of Duplicate Bridge, which was published by The John C. Winston Co. in 1929.

Pivot Mitchell

Pivot Teams
A team's context, in which members of each team change partnership so that by the end of the team's contest every member of each team has played a proportion of the boards with every other member of the team as a partner. This particular event is quite popular in England.

A French card game which was the immediate predecessor of contract bridge. Mr. Harold S. Vanderbilt, the originator of contract bridge, used Plafond, which translated means ceiling, as the basis for contract bridge.

Plain Suit
Any suit other than the trump suit.

Planning The Play
The mental process applied by the declarer in deciding how to attack the cards, using the values he holds to fulfill the contract, or to develop tricks and/or overtricks, or to minimize the possible penalties.

Plastic Valuation
A phrase popularized in the writings of Mr. Ely Culbertson to describe the mental processes of the bidder as he receives more information regarding the holdings of his partner.

Platinum Points
Platinum points are awarded for NABC+ events (which are National-rated events with no upper masterpoint limit) and include the national-rated Senior and Women's events, but not Junior, Flight B or other restricted events.

1. the phase of bridge in which the players try to take tricks to determine the outcome of bets made during the bidding;
2. to act as declarer;
3. to place a card in the center of the table or face up in front of oneself in correct rotation.

Play After An Illegal Play
This action forfeits any penalty incurred by the illegal play, unless the illegal play constitutes a revoke. This play can be made only by the player to the left of the hand making the illegal play, and the right under Law 60 is not enforced by the partner calling attention to the illegality of the play.


A. Play of Card after Irregularity

1. Forfeiture of Right to Penalise

A play by a member of the non-offending side after his RHO has led or played out of turn or prematurely, and before a penalty has been assessed, forfeits the right to penalise that offence.

2. Irregularity Legalised

Once the right to penalise has been forfeited, the illegal play is treated as though it were in turn (but Law 53C applies to the player whose turn it was).

3. Other Penalty Obligations Remain

If the offending side has a previous obligation to play a penalty card, or to comply with a lead or play penalty, the obligation remains at future turns.

B. Defender Plays before Required Lead by Declarer

When a defender plays a card after declarer has been required to retract his lead out of turn from either hand, but before declarer has led from the correct hand, the defender's card becomes a penalty card (Law 50).

C. Play by Offending Side before Assessment of Penalty

A play by a member of the offending side before a penalty has been assessed does not affect the rights of the opponents, and may itself be subject to penalty.

Played Card
In duplicate, each player, except the dummy, plays a card by removing it from his hand and facing it in front of him/herself. The declarer plays a card from the dummy by naming the card he wishes to be played, after which the dummy picks up the card and faces it in front of him/herself.

One of the four active participants at a table of bridge.

Play For
The act of assuming a certain holding, either as the basis for the declarer or for either defender. For example, North assumed, or had to play for, a 3-3 split in Hearts, in order to fulfill the contract, and upon which North based the ensuing play of the hand.

Player Number
The IBM number is the same as the IBM Number. This is a 7-digit number assigned by the ACBL to a member of ACBL. The last digit is a self-checking device by which the computer throws out incorrect numbers. The method by which the checking digit is computed is to multiply the first six digits by 7,6,5,4,3, and 2 respectively. Then add these results. Divide the total of the results by 11, and note the remainder. This remainder is then subtracted from the divisor, 11, and the resulting difference is the check digit. If the net result of this work is a remainder of 1, then the number is not used. When a player achieves Life Master status, this is indicated by a change in his/her player number by the substitution of a letter for the first digit, alphabetically from J for 1 to R for 9. Player Numbers or IBM Numbers were first instituted by the ACBL in July 1961.

Player Of The Year
The ACBL designates each year one of its members as Player of the Year. The designated player is the one that earns the most masterpoints in North American championship events with no upper masterpoint limit. The winner is presented with the Goren Trophy.

Player's Guide to Duplicate Tournaments

Play From Equals
When holding cards of equal rank in a suit, it is sometimes more important in deciding which card to play to a particular trick. A certain card, according to partnership understanding, played by the defender can relay information to his partner, or it may deceive the declarer. Such a card played by the declarer can confuse and deceive the defenders or avoid surrendering unnecessary information.

Playing To The Score
This is the risk or wager taken in the bidding or play of a hand and is often affected by the vulnerability. The need to act aggressively or conservatively mainly depends on the actual standing of the pair or team involved.

Playing Trick
A card which may be expected to take a trick, if the suit which the player bids becomes the trump suit. Definition is from Mr. Ely Culbertson from the publication Contract Bridge Blue Book as authored by Mr. Ely Culbertson and published by his founded company The Bridge World.

Play Out of Turn
A play is deemed to be in turn if it is made after the player to the right has led or played, or if it is a lead by a player who has won the preceding trick or is the opening leader. Any other order constitutes a play out of turn governed by Laws 53, 54, 55, and 56.


A. Lead out of Turn Treated as Correct Lead

Any lead faced out of turn may be treated as a correct lead. It becomes a correct lead if declarer or either defender, as the case may be, accepts it (by making a statement to that effect), or if the player next in rotation plays to the irregular lead, but see Law 47E1. (If no acceptance statement or play is made, the Director will require that the lead be made from the correct hand.)

B. Wrong Defender Plays Card to Declarer's Irregular Lead

If the defender at the right of the hand from which the lead out of turn was made plays to the irregular lead, the lead stands and Law 57 applies.

C. Proper Lead Made Subsequent to Irregular Lead

If it was properly the turn to lead of an opponent of the player who led out of turn, that opponent may make his proper lead to the trick of the infraction without his card being deemed played to the irregular lead. When this occurs, the proper lead stands, and all cards played in error to this trick may be withdrawn without penalty. (Law 16C2 applies to a defender.)


When an opening lead is faced out of turn, and offender's partner leads face down, the Director requires the face down lead to be retracted, and the following sections apply.

A. Declarer Spreads His Hand

After a faced opening lead out of turn, declarer may spread his hand; he becomes dummy, and dummy becomes declarer. If declarer begins to spread his hand, and in doing so exposes one or more cards, he must spread his entire hand.

B. Declarer Accepts Lead

When a defender faces the opening lead out of turn declarer may accept the irregular lead as provided in Law 53, and dummy is spread in accordance with Law 41.

1. Declarer Plays Second Card

The second card to the trick is played from declarer's hand.

2. Dummy Has Played Second Card

If declarer plays the second card to the trick from dummy, dummy's card may not be withdrawn except to correct a revoke.

C. Declarer Must Accept Lead

If declarer could have seen any of dummy's cards (except cards that dummy may have exposed during the auction and that were subject to Law 24), he must accept the lead.

D. Declarer Refuses Opening Lead

When declarer requires the defender to retract his faced opening lead out of turn, Law 56 applies.


A. Declarer's Lead Accepted

If declarer has led out of turn from his or dummy's hand, either defender may accept the lead as provided in Law 53, or require its retraction (after misinformation, see Law 47E1).

B. Declarer Required to Retract Lead

1. Defender's Turn to Lead

If declarer has led from his or dummy's hand when it was a defender's turn to lead, and if either defender requires him to retract such lead, declarer restores the card led in error to the proper hand without penalty.

2. Lead in Declarer's Hand or Dummy's

If declarer has led from the wrong hand when it was his turn to lead from his hand or dummy's, and if either defender requires him to retract the lead, he withdraws the card led in error. He must lead from the correct hand.

C. Declarer Might Obtain Information

When declarer adopts a line of play that could have been based on information obtained through the infraction, the Director may award an adjusted score.


When declarer requires a defender to retract his faced lead out of turn, the card illegally led becomes a major penalty card, and Law 50D applies.

Playing To The Score
This action allows one's decision regarding bidding or play to take account of the score. Typically, to underbid at rubber bridge with a partscore. For example, if partner opens the auction with 1 No Trump, showing a general Acol range of 12-14 points, and the responder holds 13 points, the responder would raise only one level rather than the normal 3 No Trump if the partnership already has a partscore of 30 or 40 points, thus playing to the score.


Opener   Responder Meaning
1   1 Normal response to an opening bid.
1 NT Limits the holding.
  2 The PLOB bid forcing the opener to further describe the holding. Strongly suggests a 5-card Heart suit.
1   1 Normal response to an opening bid.
1 NT
  2 The PLOB bid forcing the opener to further describe the holding. Strongly suggests a 5-card Spade suit.
1   1 Normal response to an opening bid.
1 NT Limits the holding.
  2 The PLOB bid forcing the opener to further describe the holding. Strongly suggests a 5-card Spade suit.

In the last example the partnership can make a distinction between bidding 2 Clubs and 2 Diamonds to indicate the values of the holding. All other responses are deemed normal bids based on partnership agreement.

Plus Values
These values are the result of small adjustments made when valuing, or re-valuing the worth of the holding, typically when using the honor tricks method of hand valuation.

Pochabo System
A bidding system developed by a bridge player, prominent in the upper echelons of the bridge circles, and who employed the pseudonym of Pochabo. Thus far we have been unable to demystify this person. A reference to the Pochabo System is made in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955. Additional information would be greatly appreciated.

The receptacle for a hand in a duplicate board.

Acronym for Pass zerO, Double One (1), a method for showing Aces, or Key Cards, after interference over Blackwood or Key Card Blackwood.

1. a unit of scoring;
2. a unit of hand valuation;
3. in describing a squeeze position, a unit of complexity. One point shows a one two-suit squeeze against one opponent.

Pointage: As defined in the English language for defining values in the card game bridge players, the player uses this term to refer to the number of points accumulated, required, and/or points collectively. Source is the Oxford Dictionary. Origin during the 1920s. The earliest use is found in The English Journal. From point + -age, and which is the official publication of the Secondary Education section of the American National Council of Teachers of English. The peer-reviewed journal has been published since the year 1912, and features columns and articles on all aspects of the teaching of English language arts at middle schools and junior and senior high schools.

Point A Board
The English term for Board-A-Match. This is a scoring method for determining a winner in a teams-of-four match. The player scores each board individually, receiving one point for a win and a half-a-point for a tie. In Britain it is more common to award two points for a win and one for a tie. Tactics are quite similar to matchpoints because what counts is whether the players can outscore the result at the other table rather than the margin of a difference.

Point Count
A method of hand valuation in which numerical values or points are assigned to various features of a hand. Many point count systems have become obsolete such as Four Aces, the Reith, and the Robinson point count systems. In general, the point count system introduced by Mr. Bryant McCampbell in 1915 and publicized by Mr. Milton C. Work, after whom it was named. The Ace has a point count of 4, the King has 3, the Queen has 2, and the Jack has 1, making a total of 40 points in the pack.

Pointed Suit
Spades or Diamonds. The converse is "rounded" indicating Hearts and Clubs.

Pointing Cards
After four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns his card face down before him. If his side has won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward his partner. If his side has lost the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward the opponents.

1. the score earned by a pair as a result of the play of a hand;
2. a unit by which a hand is evaluated;
3. the holding of masterpoints that have been credited to a player/member of the ACBL.

Poland 1 No Trump Overcall - Polish 1 No Trump Overcall - Polish 1 NT Overcall
See: Raptor Convention. This designation, unofficial as it may be, refers to a partnership agreement used by nationally recognized bridge players from Poland and refers to an agreement to overcall in Second Position with 1 No Trump indicating either a 12 to 14 high card point holding or 15 to 18 high card points, generally determined by the state of vulnerability. In Fourth Position after partner has passed an overcall of 1 No Trump is generally 15 to 18 high card points. A re-opening 1 No Trump after two passes is considered to be only 11 to 15 high card points and no stopper in the bid suit by the opponent is required or promised. The distribution of these holdings should meet the definition of No Trump as conditioned and required by the sponsoring organization. This agreement has been employed by Mr. Piotr Gawrys and Mr. Krzysztof Jassem of Poland among many others.

Note: This conventional method has been also designated as Raptor 1 No Trump Overcall, or simply Raptor. The Polish No Trump is a designation more often heard in Europe than in the United States for the identical conventional method. There may be slight differences in the application and therefore the reason for the different designations, but the concept is the same.

See: Polar-Canadian Regional

Polar-Canadian Regional
This was a bridge tournament, conducted over six days, and held annually since 1949 in Alaska, British Columbia, or in the state of Washington, United States. Also prior to the year 1967 the tournament was conducted also in Oregon. From the beginning the tournament was conducted at a time that it coincided with the birthday of George Washington, the first President of the United States, but only until 1958. Starting in 1959 the tournament was conducted in the early fall, and starting in 1968 the tournament was conducted either in late May or early April.

During the years from 1963 and 1967 the tournament was conducted twice annually, once in the spring and once in the fall. The designation for the tournament conducted in the spring was not always identical or regular since it was also known as the Pacific Northwest Regional Championships, or Polar, Canadian, British Columbia Centennial, and also as Vancouver, but the tournament was designated in 1968 as the Pacific Northwest Regional when the tournament, which was conducted in the fall, was replaced by the Canadian and Puget Sound Regionals.

Polish Bridge Union - Polski Zwia¸zek Brydz·a Sportowego
Founded in 1956.

Polish Club Bidding Systems
Many of the articles contained in this list are in the Polish language and have not been translated. Many of these listed articles have been presented for and posted to the Internet by Mr. Mike Mardesich. The information provided in these articles has also been through the contribution of several bridge experts, such as Mr. John Blubaugh, who for many years was a member of the expert panel of the Problem Solvers for the Brydz Magazine of Poland, a magazine which is comparable to The Bridge World. The majority of these articles are in .pdf file format and have been only archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Polish Club is a term describing a set of conventions played mainly in the country of Poland. They were developed, devised and published by a group of experts of the Polish Brydz magazine in the 1960s. Although not a complete, universal, distinct, or even unified bidding system, but rather a family or set of bidding systems, which are used by individual partnerships, the Polish Club has experienced several advantages over other bidding systems. Other names for distinct Polish Club Systems, possibly even geographical, have been included. Although the different variations are generally referred to as Polish Club, this may not be the case with purists.

Note: The bridge players of Poland have invented and devised a bidding system, and then the variations of this concept. The success rate of the bidding system as entertained in national and international bridge tournaments has earned this bidding system and the variations a place in the bridge world. Although not an official designation, the description of the Polish Club Bidding System is, by the admission of the developers, a small club system as opposed to a big club system.

Polish Club Summary and 1 Club Auctions
This information is written in a .pdf file format, and will be automatically opened by your browser. The presentation of the original write-up is presently off line. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site for future reference.

Polish Club 2 Clubs Auctions
This information is written in a .pdf file format, and will be automatically opened by your browser. The presentation of the original write-up is presently off line. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site for future reference.

Polish Club Oddball Sequences
In certain Polish Club bidding systems there are certain flaws, which must be handled individually and/or by the individual partnership agreement. The author of this particular write-up is unknown. Any contribution of additional information would be greatly appreciated. The presentation of the original write-up is presently off line. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site for future reference.

Polish Club 1 Diamond, 1 Heart, and 1 Spade Auctions
This information is written in a .pdf file format, and will be automatically opened by your browser. The presentation of the original write-up is presently off line. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site for future reference.

Polish End Signal
This conventional method was developed and devised by the Polish players Mr. Lukasz Slawinski and Mr. Andrzej Orlow. Usually, the end signal is a bid of 4 Diamonds by the so-called relayer, forcing the partner to bid 4 Hearts, after which the relayer can sign off in the appropriate game or slam. The Scanian System also uses a 4 Clubs end signal. Some natural bidding, that is without signing off, is an alternative.

Polish No Trump Overcall
A designation, by some international bridge players, for the conventional method of Raptor adopted and played by many bridge players from Poland.

Polish Scissors
This information is written in a .pdf file format, and will be automatically opened by your browser. This conventional bidding system is based on an opening bid, which originally promised a 5-5 distribution in any two of the four suits. This version is called The 2 Spades Opening in the HIGH System of the Polish Scissors bidding theory. This 2 Spades opening shows (at least) 5-5 in any two suits. The strength is either 5-10 high card points or a very strong hand (10 tricks) with at least 5-5 in the Minors. In most tournaments in Norway this convention is not allowed, as any preemptive opening bid must show at least one specified suit, so in the LOW system the 5-5 hands are opened 2 Hearts / 2 Spades / 2 NT (showing Majors / +another / Diamonds +Major respectively).

Polish Standard or Wspolny Jezyk 2005
This is the updated version in publication form for the bidding system translated as Polish Standard. Our apologies for the inability to represent the Polish letters correctly with our software. The author is Mr. Krzysztof Jassem of Poland. This updated version for the year 2005 has been translated by Mr. Daniel J. Neill and is available on his web site. The Internet version is also available at: It is only archived on this site in a .pdf file for future reference.

Poly Club Two Diamonds Opening Bid
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept behind this method is to indicate either a two-suited holding or a possible one-suited holding. This opening bid is forcing for one round and the first response allows the opener to clarify his holding.

In almost every card game, whereby there are two or more players, there are opponents attempting to outscore or outbid or compete against another player. The official designation for such a person, such a player is opponent. This designation has been abbreviated into simply pone. Generally, and in many card games, the reference means simply the player on the dealer's right; in two-hand play, the non-dealer. In the game of bridge the colloquial term can refer to both opponents sitting either to the left or to the right.

Note: The term is generally employed in phrases such as: Pone's Right to Shuffle, a rule according to Hoyle. Or: it is the right of the pone to take the next action or to place the next bet.

Popular Bridge
This was a bridge magazine published by Mr. Gordon Behn and Mr. James Miller and which is now defunct. The First Edition was published August 1967. See Anniversary Issue August 1977 for ten years of Cover Pages. The Editor was Mr. Robert Wolenik; Associate Editor was Mr. Max Hardy; Contributing Editors were Mr. Edwin B. Kantar and Mr. Alfred Sheinwold, among other prominent bridge authors. The bridge magazine was published bi-monthly by Behn-Miller Publishers, Inc., and headquarters was located in Encino, California. The bridge magazine had an 11 inch times 8.25 inch format and was printed in color. These magazines are from the collection of Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, United States.

June 1977 August 1977 October 1977
February 1978 April 1978 August 1978 December 1978

If any visitor would like to contribute any additional issues of this magazine, please send us a scanned copy of the front cover with at least 200dpi plus the details of the front cover for presentation. Any contributions will be greatly appreciated.

The announcement of the cessation of the publication was published by Mr. Alan Truscott in The New York Times.

Bridge: A Respected Publication Is Going Out of Business

Published: March 19, 1987

LEAD: A recent announcement is a sad blow for students of the game: Popular Bridge, which has been published bimonthly in Ventura, California, for two decades, has announced that it will cease publication.

A recent announcement is a sad blow for students of the game: Popular Bridge, which has been published bimonthly in Ventura, California, for two decades, has announced that it will cease publication.

The California periodical, with a large-page format, pleasing illustrations and contributions from top-ranked player-writers such as Eddie Kantar and Alfred Sheinwold, has offered the average player an alternative to The Bridge World, with its rather more expert readership.

The December issue of Popular Bridge included an entertaining article by Jared Johnson of Golden, Colorado, entitled ''Creative Hands,'' a collection of ''Believe It or Not'' situations.

Solutions to Problems:

It includes the solutions to some ''task'' problems. Among them are a hand with 32 high-card points that takes no tricks in defense; six spades that makes with a 2-2 fit in the absence of a trump lead; no makable game with 39 points in the partnership hands, and, conversely, a hand cold for seven no-trump with 11 partnership points.

The first item on that list refers to the celebrated ''Duke of Cumberland'' hand from whist days.

The last is the diagramed deal, which, like other constructed deals, does not have any bidding. An opening seven no-trump bid would be explicable if South had stacked the deck, and could also happen if that player mistakenly believed that he had the wrong number of cards and wished to cause a little excitement.

Seven no-trump is unbeatable for South, and strangely enough West can make the same contract. East fails by 13 tricks in seven no-trump but can make seven hearts. The best poor North can do with his Yarborough is to make six clubs.

Pop-Up Squeeze
A squeeze position in which declarer refuses a finesse in the ending because if the missing card(s) were onside it would have already been played, thereby allowing the declarer to avoid a guess between a finesse and a play for a drop. Sometimes referred to as a Show-Up Squeeze.

Portland Bowl - History of the Portland Bowl
The Portland Bowl is the British inter-university Teams-of-Four Knockout Competition. This bridge event has been played annually since the 1984/1985 season. The results an be found on the website of the Cambridge University Bridge Club and also Portland Bowl. (C) signifies the Captain of the team.

Year   Final   3rd/4th Playoff
2015/16   Cambridge B beat Oxford A    
Winners   Kyle Lam (C), Michael Alishaw, Helen Holmes, Adam Bowden, Freddie Illingworth, Chris Derrick    
2014/15   Cambridge B beat Manchester A    
Winners   Kyle Lam, Michael Alishaw, Freddie Illingworth, Toby Nonnenmacher, Stefan David and Helen Holmes    
2013/14   Cambridge A beat Imperial College    
Winners   Tommy Brass, Alexandra Birchall, Adam Bowden, Stefan David, Kyle Lam, Toby Nonnenmacher    
2012/13   Imperial College A beat Edinburgh    
Winners   Jorrit Schafer, Kok Hong, Jeanne Lantz, Kevin Satti, Filip Sevest, Kelvin Wong    
2011/12   Southampton beat Oxford    
Winners   Rhys Horlock, Tadeusz Janowski, Katy Lee and Simon Spencer    
2010/11   Oxford beat Imperial College    
Winners   Joe Clacey (C) Ian Angus, James Paul, Alex Roberts, Rasool Somji    
2009/10   Cambridge beat Oxford    
Winners   Dave Williams, Sarah O'Connor, David Faria, Graeme Robertson, Tom Rainforth, John Haslegrave    
2008/09   Oxford A beat Edinburgh    

Ian Angus (C), Joe Clacey, Ed Jones, Alice Kaye, Greg Moss, James Paul

2007/08   Durham beat Oxford A   Edinburgh beat Oxford B
Winners   James Ewington (C), Tom Dessain, Dominic Maloney, Robin Zigmond    
2006/07   Oxford A beat Durham A   Cambridge B beat Oxford B
Winners   Greg Moss (C), Ian Angus, Alice Kaye, Laura MacDougall, James Rogers, Alexander Webb    
2005/06   Durham beat Cambridge B   Trinity (Cambridge) beat Cambridge A
Winners   Geraint Harker, Robin Zigmond, Tom Dessain, Nicola MacDougall    
2004/05   London beat Oxford B   Leeds beat Cambridge B
Winners   Alex Hydes, Ben Handley-Pritchard, Tessa Greenslade, David Rogers    
203/004   Cambridge A beat Oxford B   Trinity (Cambridge) beat Imperial B
Winners   Stuart Haring, Roger Brown, Gareth Birdsall, Daniel Elstein, Alex Foley, Jon De Souza    
2002/03   Warwick beat Durham   Cambridge beat Leeds
Winners   Leigh Chapman, Dave Cropper, Ben Cowling, Sarah Whitehead    
2001/02   Oxford beat Cambridge   London beat Cambridge B
Winners   Peter Stockdale, Nigel Cundy, Greg Moss, Tim Prior, Susan Stockdale (Norton)    
2000/01   Oxford beat Warwick   Durham beat Cambridge
Winners   Alex Hydes, Nigel Cundy, Tim Prior, Peter Stockdale, Greg Moss, Reignolde Mahboubian-Jones    
1999/00   Oxford beat Cambridge   Durham beat Warwick
Winners   Nigel Cundy (C), Eugene Goh, Alex Hydes, Phillip Corser, Iain Au-Yong    
1998/99   Cambridge beat Bristol   Edinburgh beat Cambridge B
Winners   Lior Zivan, Kelly, Gareth Birdsall, O'Gorman, Sonia Zakrzewski, Ian Greig    
1997/98   Oxford beat Cambridge B   Cambridge A beat Durham
Winners   Alex Fernhead, Paul Fernhead, Keith Bennett, Graham Sharp, Suzanne Cohen, Angela Pullen    
1996/97   Oxford beat Edinburgh   Cambridge B beat Oxford B
Winners   Luke Kerr, Robin Prestwich, Paul Fernhead, Alex Fernhead, Steve Noble, Suzanne Cohen    
1995/96   Oxford beat Nottingham   Exeter beat Durham
Winners   Luke Kerr, Paul Fernhead, Alex Fernhead, Robin Prestwick, Suzanne Cohen, Abbey Walker (Smith)    
1994/95   London beat Oxford   Leeds placed 3rd
Winners   Melanie Keppler, Stuart Forsyth, Jonathan Jacobs, Roy Westwater    
1993/94   Cambridge beat Oxford B    
Winners   Frances Hinden, Chris Jagger, Jon Cooke, Ed Ionides    
1992/93   Cambridge beat Oxford    
Winners   Frances Hinden, Chris Jagger, Jon Cooke, Ed Ionides    
1991/92   Cambridge beat Salford    
Winners   Tom Townsend, Mike Hornung, Frances Hinden, Philip Wood, Chris Jagger    
1990/91   Cambridge beat Birkbeck    
Winners   Chris Jagger, Philip Wood, Jeffrey Allerton, Tom Townsend    
1989/90   Cambridge beat Sheffield    
Winners   Ed Linfield, Chris Jagger, Philip Wood, Paul Barden, Jeffrey Allerton    
1988/9   York beat Cambridge    
Winners   Robert Hill(c), Daron Acemoglu, Harry Anoyrkatis, Heather Dunstan (Dhondy), Sarah Teshome    
1987/8   Cambridge beat Southampton    
Winners   Ed Linfield (C), Keith Davies, Alex Hsieh, William Hawkins, M. Colville, R. Silcock    
1986/7   York beat Oxford    
Winners   Heather Dunstan (Dhondy), Alistair McCambridge, Harry Anoyrkatis, Laurence Parry    
1985/6   Manchester beat Oxford    
Winners   Shaun Day (C), Martin Kleyman, Julian Mitchell, Brian Geary    
1984/5   Cambridge beat Oxford    
Winners   Steve Prowse, James Rowley, John Hobson, Richard Plackett    

Portland Club
The principal bridge club of the British elite. The club established the laws applied to the game of bridge and are still used today as the foundation. The club was first founded as the Statford Club in 1815 and was reorganized in 1825. The game of bridge, introduced by Lord Brougham, was backed up by a Code of Laws in 1985, and amended as necessary over the years.

Portugal - Federação Portuguesa de Bridge

1. the location at the table;
2. the order of speaking relative to the dealer. The dealer is in first position, the player to dealer's left is in second position, etc,;
3. the seat. First position means first seat, etc.;
4. the chair. First chair means first position, etc.

This term describes the action of making a call in order to place or intend to place the more advantageously located partner as the declarer.

Positional Factor
The value of honor cards during the auction can improve or become less valuable in relation to the bidding by the opposition. This positional factor influences greatly the bidding process.

Positional Squeeze

Positive Double
This is a designation for a double, which may or may not be converted by partner to a penalty double if deemed profitable for the partnership in terms of the resulting score. In many competitive auctions any immediate competition can be encountered by an overcall of the overcalled suit, and the auction continues. However, this so-called Free Bid may be defined, especially on the one level as a holding worth only 5/6 to 9 points. The double in such agreements would promise more values following a competitive action. The partner of the doubler can either continue the auction and the doubler reveals the nature of the holding following the double, or the partner of the doubler allows the double to stand or the partner converts the Positive Double to a penalty double.

Review; Penalty Double

Note: In his publication Auction Bridge Standards, published in the year 1921, Mr. Wilbur C. Whitehead, Managing Director of The Knickerbocker Whist Club in New York, New York, United States, defined the Positive Double in the following fashion;

Any double of an adverse suit of No-Trump bid where partner of doubler has already bid or doubled is invariably a positive double, meant to defeat bid doubled and not to force partner to do something he has already done.

If, instead of doubling at first opportunity, player overcalls adverse bid and thereafter doubles, such subsequent double is a positive double regardless of whether partner of doubler has or has not already bid.

Immediate doubles of adverse suit bids of four or more, or doubles of adverse No-trump bids of two or more whether immediate or otherwise, are, or should be, positive doubles.

Positive Response
A natural and constructive response, confirming certain values, in a forcing situation where there is a bid available for an artificial negative or waiting response.

Positive Slam Double
See: Double For Sacrifice. This action is also referred to as: Negative Slam Double or Unpenalty Double.

A discussion of a bridge hand after the completion of play with the objective of deciding whether or not the bidding could have been different, the play could have been more strategically planned, and whether the hand had any unusual features which were disregarded.

Post Mortem Magazine
A Bulletin of the New York Chapter of the American Contract Bridge League. This bulletin continued to be published as of Volume 44-4, April 1997, which can be reviewed by clicking on the link. The possibly last Editor is Kathy Anday-Fallenius of the Greater New York Bridge Association, Inc. Post-Mortem was also an almost monthly feature editorial of The Bridge World beginning with the year 1973. The possible connection of the two publications is unknown. A starting and last issue date is unknown.

Post Mortemist
A designation for a bridge player, who always disregards the fact the partnership still has additional boards to play and that the play period has not ended. The designation also applies to those players, who analyze and dissect each board in the most minute detail as to what could have happened had the defense played such and such a card in disregard to the enjoyment of other players either in the immediate vicinity or at the bridge table.

See: Cappelletti and Hamilton

Power Control Bidding System
This is a designation for a bidding system or conventional method listed in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955. During the early evolution of the game of bridge there occurred a proliferation of many such bidding systems. However, many have been forgotten and were discarded for the newest version of another bidding system. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated.

Slang: a very strong hand. Another term is a Rock Crusher.

Power Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variation of the Precision bidding system with a multiple 2 Diamonds opening bid, but with a definitive 1 Club opening showing only any shape and 16 plus points.

Power System Opening Bids
The Power System is closely related to the Polish Club system.

Practice Finesse
See: Finesse

Pragmatic Standard
This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser. This concept was developed, devised and authored by Mr. Mahesh Shetye. In his own words: The work presented here is an attempt to add a practical edge to so called Standard American system. For the sake of completeness the presentation includes the best of today’s evolved system, originated from the time of Culbertson to Robson with my suggestions in the various areas such as opening bids, their requirements, responses, rebids and further specialized bidding treatment with full developments including some artificial gadgets, which have proved the test of the time, for improving its overall efficiency at the table. Overall approach is aimed on finding an exact degree of trump fit and locating singletons, which has a high frequency.

Pratt Family Medal
This medal and/or medals and medailions are presented by the Pratt Family of Australia and are presented at Commonwealth Nations Championship games. Each participant in the Championship received a copper medallion (60 mm) designed by Michael Meszaros, a world recognized sculptor. A boxed copy was given to the Gold, Silver and Bronze winners. A large copy (175mm) of the trophy was given to the Championship winning team. The Pratt family donated the cost of the trophies. The medallion was named The Pratt Family Medal. Source: Victorian Bridge Association Bulletin, March 2006.

Pratt Medal

To act in direct position as one would in reopening or balancing position. For example: to bid 3 Clubs after 1 Spade - pass - 2 Spades - ? with the values usually associated with 1 Spade - pass - 2 Spades - pass - pass - 3 Clubs would be a pre-balance.

This is a method that occurs in transfer auctions. One method applies to a Major suit transfer, and one method applies after a Minor suit transfer. Generally after a No Trump opening, the opener can show maximum values, favorable acceptance of the transfer suit, even a held doubleton, and a strong interest in game, depending both on the values held by the partner and according to the partnership agreement as to the style of bidding.

In ACBL tournaments, the players are required to explain to the opponents, or pre-alert, certain partnership methods and treatments, and any unusual agreements plus any unusual carding methods.

This term describes the action in direct position as one player would in re-opening or balancing position. For example: 1 Spade - pass - 2 Spades - 3 Clubs or 1 Spade - pass - 2 Spades - pass - pass - 3 Diamonds would both be considered an act of prebalancing.

A bidding system, which has been developed, revised and varied according to the preferences of the bridge community. Many variations exist and some are included, whether they are individual partnership understanding or partially adopted by the majority of the bridge community.

This variation has been attributed to Mr. Kelvin Ward. This variant of Precision includes canape, Multi Two Diamonds, Lucas Two Bids, and a weaker 1NT opening of 11-13 high card points. This variation is in .pdf file format. Depending on your browser, the .pdf file may be downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened automatically by your browser.

Canapé Precision
This variation is a partnership understanding between two players and hence its name of Sher-Neill Canapé Precision. The .pdf file represents the System Notes of these two players. This variation is in .pdf file format. Depending on your browser, the .pdf file may be downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened automatically by your browser.

Precision Asking Bids
The Precision Club system allows the 1 Club opener to use asking bids for three purposes. First purpose is to find out about the length and quality of the trump suit. Second purpose is to discover responder’s control of a particular suit. Third purpose is to find out whether the responder can fill in the opener’s semi-solid suit and what other Aces he holds.

Precision Award
The Precision Award was donated by C.C. Wei and after his death continued to be donated by his widow, Kathie Wei, presently Kathie Wei-Sender. It is awarded by the International Bridge Press Association for the Best Article or Series on a System or Convention.

Precision Club
A bidding system developed by Mr. C.C. Wei (1914 - 1987) in 1963 together with Mr. Alan Truscott. Other sources provide the information that the bidding system was originally called the China Bidding System, developed by Mr. C.C. Wei in 1965, and which later became the Precision Club Bidding System.

This particular bidding system has been, over the years, revised, modified, and altered to fit certain partnership agreements, varied to address certain flaws, and improved many times. There are many variations on this one theme and following are several. They are all in .pdf file format.

Power Precision of Mr. Alan Sontag and Mr. Peter Weichsel
These are the notes from the book by Mr. Alan Sontag and Mr. Peter Weichsel as transcribed by Mr. Eugene Hung as found on the web pages of Mr. Daniel Neill. At the 37th World Team Championships in Estoril, Bulletin 6, Friday, October 28, 2005, Mr. Alan Sontag was asked about the Power Precision system, the system published in book form, Mr. Alan Sontag said that when he and Mr. Peter Weichsel reformed their partnership in 1998 after a 15-year hiatus, they reviewed the Power Precision system and wondered how they could have won anything playing those methods. These notes are also only archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Precision and Super Precision Bidding
This is a .pdf file compiled by Mr. Giorgio Belladonna and Mr. Benito Garozzo and which includes their opening bids in addition to many continuances following not only the opening bids but also the rebids. Compare Super Precision Club.

RM Precision
This is a form of Precision employed by Mr. Eric Rodwell and Mr. Jeff Meckstroth, whose partnership is generally referred to as Meckwell, which is an individual partnership agreement. Their version of Precision utilizes strong No Trumps, but with a 9-12 variation in First or Second Seat, at favorable vulnerability, in live competition. Strong Club openings have been slightly weakened after their initial employment and their variation contains schemes for positive responses and opener's rebids, which are not completely in conformity with the original Precision concept. Also, Weak Two Bids in either Major suit are opened with 2 Diamonds. The essence of their variation is that the agreement contains special treatments and gadgets depending on the state of the auction. Additional information is not available at this time.

Super Precision Club
The famous Italian bridge partnership of Mr. Benito Garrozzo and Mr. Giorgio Belladona adopted the Precision Club system, to which they added series of improvements and modifications. This continuous processing and modifying ended in a new variant in 1974, which they designated as the Super Precision Club. This .pdf file outlines the basic fundamentals of the Precision bidding system with responses and defense mechanisms. This file is in .pdf file format and, depending our your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adbode Acrobat or opened by your browser. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site.

Precision Club - 99
This is a bidding system developed by C.C. Wei in 1963 with assistance from Mr. Alan Truscott. This bidding system was used successfully y the Taiwan team in the 1967, 1968, and 1969 Far East Championships, and attracted international interest when Mr.. Patrick Huan, M.F. Tai, C.S. Shen and Frank Hwang lead Taiwan's entrance into the finals. This was actually the closest a non-European non-North-American team had come to capturing the world team title. The Taiwan team reached the final again in 1970.

In the United States a number of top-level teams were sponsored by C.C. Wei to employ and popularize the Precision bidding system. Starting around the year 1972, when the Italian Blue Team emerged from retirement to enter the World Team Olympiad, all three of its pairs were using versions of the Precision bidding system. The version employed by Mr. Giorgio Belladonna and Mr. Benito Garozzo was called Super Precision.

This .pdf file format is an outline of the Precision Club, and the origin is unknown as is the particular version. Any information would be appreciated as to its origin and the particular designation of this version. Depending on your browser, by clicking on this link, the .pdf file will automatically be downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or else automatically opened by your browser without any download. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site.

Precision 8
This version of the Precision bidding system was published by Mr. Kelvin Ward on the Internet and carries the number 8. This variant of Precision includes Canapé, Multi Two Diamonds, Lucas Two Bids, and a weaker 1 NT opening of 11 to 13 high card points. Depending on your browser, by clicking on this link, the .pdf file will automatically be downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or else automatically opened by your browser without any download. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site.

Sher-Neill Canapé Precision
This .pdf file format is the accumulation of System Notes. Depending on your browser, by clicking on this link, the .pdf file will automatically be downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or else automatically opened by your browser without any download. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site.

Precision Club Opening Bids
These opening bids have gained enormous popularity of the followers of the Precision bidding system, which was devised by Mr. Chung Ching Wei, and which was used to a great advantage by the Chinese National Team. Only the opening bids with their definitions and/or requirements are shown.

Precision Team
A successful team of bridge players from New York City sponsored by Mr. C.C. Wei. However, over time The Precision Team had as its core members Steven Altman, Thomas M. Smith, Joel Stuart, and Peter Weichsel. This team was dissolved in 1973.

Precision Two Diamonds
A 2 Diamond opening to show a minimum-range opening hand of 11 to 15 high card points with no long suit and shortness in Diamonds. Possibly a distribution of 4-4-1-4 or 4-4-0-5.

1. A method of producing duplicated boards for play in more than two sections.
2. A method of producing deals prior to a match so that duplicates of the hand can be published and furnished to spectators or those who prepare slides or frames for exhibition.

1. intended to hinder the enemy through the removal of bidding space from the auction;
2. a preemptive bid, or a bid that acts preemptively no matter how intended.

Preempt Bids
What are the requirements for a preempt at the three level and higher. Is there a universal standard for preemptive bids. We present the basics and points to consider. What information are you giving your partner when you make a preemptive bid.

Preemptive Transfer Opening Bids
The Preemptive Opening Transfer, or Preemptive Transfer Opening Bids convention, in comparison to other Preemptive Transfer conventions, requires that an opening preemptive bid be made in the suit ranking below the long suit of the opener. The Preemptive Opening Transfer bid is generally made on the three level.

Preemptive Overcall
A purely preemptive overcall which is normally a double or triple jump in a suit, and the objective being to disrupt the line of communication between the opponents.

Preemptive Raise
Generally, a preemptive raise of a Major suit opening to the Four Level by the partner who holds distributional strength as opposed to high card values.

Preemptive Re-raise
This designation defines a three level rebid by the opener in his own suit which has been supported by his partner. Under partnership agreement, the responder is expected to pass. This action is also known as a One-Two-Three Stop.

Preemptive Response
This is a new suit response to a suit opening at a higher level that would be required for a jump shift. The responder is expected to have a seven card suit or more, but this bid discloses nothing about his strength.

Preemptive Roman Keycard Blackwood
The origin of this conventional method, which is an extension of the Roman Keycard Blackwood conventional method, is unknown. The concept is based on the fact that the responder, who has not yet bid or even passed, holds values for a likely slam contract. Any additional information as to the origin of this approach would be greatly appreciated.

To offer a preference.

When a partner bids two suits, and the responder supports one of those suits at the lowest level, his bid is simply a preference bid for that suit, and not the other suit. The term refers to an indication of choice of strain from among those suggested by the partner.

Preferences System or Zebulon Convention
A No Trump Overcall System for Current ACBL Restrictions published by Mr. John Vega and Mr. Marty Lavine. The concept is the variation on the theme of the Suction convention to meet the requirements of bridge sponsoring organizations, especially ACBL, announced in 1998, with the amended section of the General Convention Chart which relates to No Trump defenses by requiring that direct overcalls "other than double and 2 Clubs, must have at least one known suit." The Zebulon convention was later designated as Preferences. The original published concept is in .pdf file format and the re-written publication is also in a .pdf file format. Clicking on these links will cause, depending on your browser, the file to be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened automatically with Adobe Acrobat or your browser will automatically open the file.

Premature Lead of Play
A lead or play made before the correct time or turn. This situation may occur before or after the auction is completed. However, the declarer incurs no penalty for a card led during the auction. See Law 24 for a card led during the auction; Law 54 for a faced opening lead out of turn; and Law 57 for a premature lead or play by a defender.

Premium Score
The score or bonus above the line including extra tricks, making doubled or redoubled contracts, rubber bonus, slam bonus, honors, and points won by defeating the opponent’s contract.

Prepared Bid
A bid made with a mind to the possibilities on later rounds of bidding.

Preparedness, Principle of
A principle of choosing the suit for the opening bid to facilitate a rebid. The idea, originally called Anticipation, of looking forward to the next round of bidding when selecting a bid. It applies regularly to the opening bidder, but may also apply to the responder or to the opponents of the player who opened the bidding.

Present Count
A defensive card play method in which a count signal relates to the number of cards presently held in a suit.

Presidents - ACBL - ABL - USBA
A list of all the former elected Presidents during the evolution period resulting in the ACBL. These ladies and gentlemen have served as the Presidents of the organizations, which evolved from the USBA and the ABL into the American Contract Bridge League or ACBL. They have given their time, their energy, their administrative skills, and their devotion to establish a unity among the many bridge players in North America and around the world.

President's Cup
The Presidents Cup is awarded to the winners of the Non-Life Master Swiss Teams held at the Summer NABC.

Presidents of the International Bridge Press Association

Pressure Bid
This is the term for an overbid made necessary by any opposing action. For example, one partner opens the auction and his partner is immediately pressured by an immediate preemptive overcall. Without the overcall, the partner would have been able to communicate his length and values, but his line of communication has been interrupted and the partner must find another manner of communicating his values and length to his partner.

Preteen Scholarship Award
Any ACBL members who have not yet celebrated their 13th birthday before July 1 of the year of the contest year and who have at least one full masterpoint on record are eligible for this Award, which is a 10-year Maturity $5000 Certificate to be used for academic or career training. This scholarship was founded by Mr. Homer Shoop and is administered by the ACBL Educational Foundation.

1. describing strength or high card values of the most useful or highest kind;
2. describing a control or first-round control;
3. describing sufficient support to guarantee at least an eight-card fit.

Primary Honors
The top honors in a suit or the Aces and the Kings.

Primary Tricks
A term used to describe high cards which win tricks no matter who plays the hand. Coined by Mr. P. Hal Sims.

Primary Values
The Aces and Kings, which are also called Hard Values.

Principle of Coincidence
The Principle of Coincidence is a tool for gauging whether or not a partnership has done its best to comply with the principle of full-disclosure. The convention card is expected to reflect partnership agreements and should also note partnership style wherever possible. For example, a partnership that lists a 15 to 17 point No Trump range and tends to open most 14 point hands in third seat with 1 No Trump has mis-marked the convention card. The range should be indicated as (14)15-17 on the card.

There is no infraction just because an opponent makes a call which does not match the stated conventional agreements provided the partner has no awareness of the possibility of deviation and does not allow for a possible deviation. However, whenever the partner's response is also unexpected (and successful), there is evidence that such an awareness may exist.

The following combination of overbid and underbid is an example of the Principle of Coincidence. East, whose card is marked 15-17, opens one No Trump with a balanced 13. West with 10 points decides to bid only 2 No Trump and eight tricks are the maximum available. This "lucky coincidence" is the result of two improbable actions which, in combination, "work". The Principle of Coincidence defines this sequence to be an infraction of ACBL regulations (full-disclosure). The score on the board should be adjusted whenever the misinformation directly damages the non-offenders (as by placing an extra card or wrong card in declarer's hand allowing an extra trick(s) to be made). Whether or not a score adjustment is made, a procedural penalty for the offenders should be considered.

This Principle of Coincidence also applies to passing partner's forcing bid when he clearly did not have the values for a forcing bid, underbidding one's values when partner has psyched, and so on. The Principle of Coincidence "allows" automatic score adjustments when these infractions occur. The acting side must convince the tournament director and/or committee that their actions were normal or that they lack the bridge experience to know that they were making unusual bids.

If an opponent or the director feels it is appropriate, a player memo may be submitted to the appropriate body.

Tournament Directors, etc., should not be unreasonable in applying this Principle of Coincidence. Everyone has different skill levels and card judgment. Most important is that inexperienced players be treated with consideration. They are exercising their best judgment, have no intention of doing anything wrong and DO NOT fall under the jurisdiction of the Principle of Coincidence.

Principle of Full Disclosure
Source: ACBL. The philosophy of active ethics tells us that winners should be determined solely by skill, flair and normal playing luck. Actively ethical partnerships take pains to ensure that their opponents are fully informed.

A major tenet of active ethics is the principle of full disclosure. This means that all information available to your partnership must be made available to your opponents.

Let's take a look at weak two bids from the point of view of full disclosure. When an established partnership opens a weak two bid, they have a great deal of information of which their opponents are not aware. The convention card discloses the point range, but little else. However, the partners are aware of the range of hands on which the bid can be made (discipline?, suit quality requirements?, five-or-seven card suits allowed?, side four-card major ok?, void ok?, positional variations?, etc). Full disclosure requires that all these inferences, restrictions and tendencies be made known to any opponent who inquires about their style.

If you are interested in knowing these things about your opponent's bid, merely say to the bidder's partner, "Would you tell me more about your style?" You may use the style inquiry' to ask about any call your opponent makes.

The actively ethical player will often go beyond what is technically required in volunteering information to the opponents. Quite often, the declaring side in an actively ethical partnership will volunteer such information before the opening lead is made. (But remember, when there has been misinformation given, such as a failure to alert or a mis-alert, there is a LEGAL obligation on the player whose partner misinformed the opponents. He, the bidder, must give the opponents the correct information at the end of the auction if his side is the declaring side or at the end of the play if his side is defending.)

New players or infrequent partnerships usually will not have understandings about the items discussed here and , of course, it will be perfectly proper for them to reply "We have no agreement as to style."

Principle of Limited Hands by Manfield-Miles
This is a guideline devised by Mr. Ed Manfield and Mr. Marshall Miles, which states that when a sufficient fit is found, a limited hand cannot continue to compete, unless invited by partner.

Prism Signals or Prism Signal
This is the name of a bridge book written by Mr. John E. Sheehan, which the student can find by clicking on the link above. This Internet book has been archived and preserved here for future reference in a .pdf file format, which, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

The book was co-authored by the brother Mr. Bob Sheehan, and is based on the book by Mr. Helge Vinje entitled New Ideas In Defensive Play in Bridge. As stated in the Foreword of the book, the purpose of the book is to demonstrate one fact. The four hands of a bridge deal are structurally interdependent. A defender uses the dummy to generate a prism. The prism governs single suit and parity relationships in the two closed hands. Defenders can employ signals that describe these relationships.

Prism Signals Summary
This is a summary of the concept behind the Prism Signals prepared by Mr. Luis Argerich. This summary has been archived and preserved only on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Private Convention
A partnership understanding or agreement which has not been made known to the opponents, and which is in violation of Law 75. ACBL standards require that the opponents be Alerted to any conventional bid embodying an understanding and/or partnership agreement that is not classified as a Class A Convention. See also: Convention Chart Changes.


A. Special Partnership Agreements

Special partnership agreements, whether explicit or implicit, must be fully and freely available to the opponents (see Law 40). Information conveyed to partner through such agreements must arise from the calls, plays and conditions of the current deal.

B. Violations of Partnership Agreements

A player may violate an announced partnership agreement, so long as his partner is unaware of the violation (but habitual violations within a partnership may create implicit agreements, which must be disclosed). No player has the obligation to disclose to the opponents that he has violated an announced agreement and if the opponents are subsequently damaged, as through drawing a false inference from such violation, they are not entitled to redress.

C. Answering Questions on Partnership Agreements

When explaining the significance of partner's call or play in reply to an opponent's inquiry (see Law 20), a player shall disclose all special information conveyed to him through partnership agreement or partnership experience, but he need not disclose inferences drawn from his general knowledge and experience.

D. Correcting Errors in Explanation

1. Explainer Notices Own Error

If a player subsequently realises that his own explanation was erroneous or incomplete, he must immediately call the Director (who will apply Law 21 or Law 40C).

2. Error Noticed by Explainer's Partner

A player whose partner has given a mistaken explanation may not correct the error before the final pass, nor may he indicate in any manner that a mistake has been made; a defender may not correct the error until play ends. After calling the Director at the earliest legal opportunity (after the final pass, if he is to be declarer or dummy; after play ends, if he is to be a defender), the player must inform the opponents that, in his opinion, his partner's explanation was erroneous.

Private Scorecard
Many bridge players, competing in duplicate events, prefer to keep a written record of their performance. The hosting organization generally keeps such blank record scorecards available to any and all bridge players.

Prize Money Bridge Events or Tournaments
Such events are also sponsored by the ACBL. Prize Money Bridge Pairs is a match point duplicate bridge game with an individual movement. Participants play only one hand with each partner. Scores of each hand are computed on a match point duplicate bridge pair game basis.

Since players play only one hand with each partner, a standard bidding system is required that all players can easily understand. Prize Money Bridge uses the ACBL Standard Yellow Card with minor variations. Since everyone is playing the same system, there is no need for "Alerts" as everyone can check their Yellow Card to learn the meaning of a specific bid.

BPT events are divided into three classifications. The first classification is the Open event. The Open event is played in three sessions: two qualifying sessions and a final session at designated times. The maximum first place award in the Open event (based on attendance of a minimum number of tables) is a cash amount to be published and announced. The entry fee for the Open event is determined by the sponsoring organization and covers play in all three sessions.

A second event classification is the Stratified event. The Stratified event is played in two sessions, the time of which is determined by the sponsoring organization. The Stratified event is limited to players who have won less than a pre-set amount won in previous BPT events. The maximum first place award for the Stratified event is a certain amount and the entry fee is a certain amount determined by the sponsoring organization.

The third event classification is the 299er event. The 299er event is limited to players with less than 300 masterpoints. The event's first session is set by the sponsoring organization followed with the second session played at a designated time. The maximum first place award for the 299er event is established by the sponsoring organization.

All players who fail to qualify for the finals are eligible to play in a consolation event. There is no additional charge to play in this event and winners earn "BPT Bridge Bucks," which are good in any BPT sponsored event.

In addition to cash awards, players in BPT events win masterpoints at regional rating. Players may make advance reservation for these events.

An acronym for Pattern Relay Organized used in the PRO System. This is a system formerly employed by some West Coast pairs. The various Relay Sequences allowed the stronger hand to control the auction and inquire about the strength and pattern of the partner.

Pro-Am Game
The designation for games which are frequently run at bridge clubs as part of the Mentoring Program. They consist of players called Pros, or more experienced players with an established number of points generally exceeding 300, and so-called Am players, or newcomers or less experienced players with fewer points. These games pay 80% of the masterpoints awarded for open events. The term is derived from the designations: Pro-fessional and Am-ateur.

PRO-AM Pairs
One member of each pair is a top-flight player, the pro, so to speak, and the other is a new or relatively new player, the amateur. The purpose is to enable the new player to meet and get to know some of the better players in the area. The new player also gets the benefit of good advice and tips from his or her "pro". The game itself is run along the lines of an open pairs.

Probable Trick
A playing trick that can be reasonably counted upon when attempting to forecast the play during the bidding.

1. person who makes a living from bridge;
2. paid partner or teammate.

Professional Tournament Directors Association PTDA
The is a professional organization of persons who work for the ACBL as tournament directors at the many scheduled tournament events conducted every year in North America. Their principle directive is to maintain the highest possible standards for the conduct and operation of these tournament events.

1. the movement of players in duplicate bridge;
2. the movement of the boards in duplicate bridge;
3. the movement of players in Progressive Bridge to complete a session of play.

Progressive Key Card Blackwood
This conventional method was developed by Mr. Jean Marc Roudinesco of Paris, France, (1932 - 2001), author, bridge theorist. Via step responses the partnership can show the number of Key Cards, followed by King-asking bids, followed by Queen-asking bids.

Progressive Squeeze

1. to promote a card closer to a winning rank, thereby promoting a trick;
2. to add to the number of valuation points upon exchange of information during the auction.

Promotion of Trump Honors
During the bidding process, a higher value is given to an honor in a suit bid by the partner as opposed to a similar honor in a side suit.

A strict code of ethics and courtesy is part of the game. The purpose of the Proprieties contained in Chapter VII, Laws 72 to 76 is to make the game of bridge more enjoyable for everyone, no matter what the situation.

PRO-System or Pattern Relay Organized
This is a bidding system previously played by many partnerships on the West Coast of the United States.

1. Intermediate No Trump openings: 14-16 high card points.
2. Forcing 1 Club openings

a. Promises either a long Club suit with opening values or
b. Balanced holding with 17-20 high card points.

3. Non-Forcing Two-over-One responses and Jump Shifts.
4. 4-card Major suit openings

a. any 1 No Trump response is game-forcing.

5. Reverse Bids based on distribution rather than strength.

1. Slang: a term in England to balance;
2. Slang: to reopen the auction;
3. to make a bid so that the partner may have a further opportunity to bid. This definition has become obsolescent.
4. to guard with a smaller card, such as an honor.

Protected Suit
A suit including at least one stopper.

A term used in England for Balancing.

To begin the procedure for submitting an appeal. The action which leads to an appeal of a decision made by a game director.

Protest Period
The time specified by the sponsoring organization during which a director’s ruling may be appealed.

Proven Finesse
A finesse that is guaranteed to win because of the information obtained from the previous play.

The expression of this bridge-related term was allegedly first coined by some member(s) of the Stanford Bridge Club and is attributed to Mr. Ravi Romamoorthi. The definition is that the declarer runs off all the winners in his/her hand when declarer has only one loser remaining, hoping the defenders cannot figure out what the last card is. The use of the term generally implies that it should be obvious to the defenders what card to keep. (Another term, moron squeeze, is also employed and there is the milder form memory squeeze that is in common use).

Pseudo Squeeze

Psychic Bid - Psyches
A bid by any player that has little or no resemblance to a logical choice for the hand in either a natural sense such as in a conventional or systemic partnership understanding. The target of psychic bids are primarily to interrupt the line of communications between the opposing side.

Note: There are also designations floating throughout the bridge community, such as:

1. Baby Psyches
2. Baby Pseudo Psyches
3. Psychic Cuebids
4. Pseudo Psychic Cuebids

which remain unspecified, but to which certain bridge players / experts assign a certain definition.

Note: The origin of psychic bids has always been a matter of speculation. However, the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955, contains the following reference to Dorothy Rice Sims, which is presented in a .pdf file format, and which carries a certain amount of authority in asserting that she introduced the psychic bid into contract.

Psychic Bidding
This is a phrased first coined by Dorothy Rice Sims in 1931 and refers to a bluffing call by an opponent or an individual of a partnership to create the illusion of strength or length in a particular suit, or to conceal weakness. Since a partnership was based on trust and confidence, this manner of bidding did not fit this pattern, and therefore psychic bidding did not become popular. However, in 1952 psychic bidding became featured elements of the Roth-Stone, Kaplan-Sheinwold, and Bulldog Systems, although in a more defined and disciplined form. See Law 40.


A. Right to Choose Call or Play

A player may make any call or play (including an intentionally misleading call - such as a psychic bid - or a call or play that departs from commonly accepted, or previously announced, use of a convention), without prior announcement, provided that such call or play is not based on a partnership understanding.

B. Concealed Partnership Understandings Prohibited

A player may not make a call or play based on a special partnership understanding unless an opposing pair may reasonably be expected to understand its meaning, or unless his side discloses the use of such call or play in accordance with the regulations of the sponsoring organisation.

C. Director's Option

If the Director decides that a side has been damaged through its opponents' failure to explain the full meaning of a call or play, he may award an adjusted score.

D. Regulation of Conventions

The sponsoring organisation may regulate the use of bidding or play conventions. Zonal organisations may, in addition, regulate partnership understandings (even if not conventional) that permit the partnership's initial actions at the one level to be made with a hand of a king or more below average strength. Zonal organisations may delegate this responsibility.

E. Convention Card

1. Right to Prescribe

The sponsoring organisation may prescribe a convention card on which partners are to list their conventions and other agreements and may establish regulations for its use, including a requirement that both members of a partnership employ the same system (such a regulation must not restrict style and judgement, only method).

2. Referring to Opponents' Convention Card

During the auction and play, any player except dummy may refer to his opponents' convention card at his own turn to call or play, but not to his own.

Psychic Controls
These are methods within the partnership agreement intended to circumvent damaging the own partnership following a psychic bid made by one partner. In general, any psychic bid contains approximately 3-6 high card points normally in the suit opened.

1. Controls held by the partner are related to the Disciplined Psychic Bid, and are an element of the Kaplan-Sheinwold and the original Roth-Stone bidding systems.
2. Any response of 2 No Trump constitutes a holding of 21-22 high card points and shows game interest.
3. Any response of 3 No Trump constitutes a holding with greater strength and guarantees game.
4. A Jump Shift is one-round forcing. The psychic bidder usually rebids his original suit or rebids No Trump, whichever is cheaper.

Note: Mr. Samuel Stayman refers to controlled psychics or controlled psychic openings and overcalls in his publication The Complete Stayman System of Contract Bidding, published by Rinehart and Company in the year 1956.

Psychedelic Double
This is a designation used by those addicted bridge players, who enjoy the game so profoundly that they continue playing after mid-night and after several rounds of alcoholic beverages. This designation describes only a humorous form of bidding and is not to be taken seriously. Below is a description found on the Internet:

The Psychedelic Double is Multi-Way:

A. In Negative Double position:

1. After: 1 1 ??
2. After: 1 1 ??

B. Long past mid-night, when the wind is howling, when the opponents have opened 1 such and such times and not before taking - or tanking - 3 double glasses of straight bourbon.

A. This double is in fact a Psychedelic PASS, which might mean a lot.

B. This double is to keep the bidding open for opener and give him a chance to bid a more clear contract.

Psychic Stayman
This is a colloquial designation for Garbage Stayman or Drop Dead Stayman. The origin is clouded and may have evolved within the bridge community before the introduction of the semi-official designation of Garbage Stayman. This term is not to be confused with the designation for the Stayman Psychic Opening Bid. This designation has become obsolete and is no longer in use.

Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the original concept of the original suction conventional method it was evident from the original version that the responder and the No Trump bidder could easily formulate a defense method to penalize the competition with a penalty double.

Pudding Raise In Acol

Slang: to draw trumps.

Pump - Pumping
Slang: to force out a trump card. A colloquialism for the term to force. The act of forcing the declarer during the play to ruff is referred to as pumping the declarer.

Slang: to cause a player to use a trump for ruffing;
Slang: the act of shortening the trump.

To double for penalty.
1. to transfer;
2. to use a puppet.

When playing Relay Bids, the partner relaying is called the Captain and his partner is traditionally called the Puppet.

As used in the System of Relay Bids, this term refers to the partner of the player, who first initiates a Relay bid. The player, who initiates the Relay bid is referred to as the Captain.

Puppet Stayman
A Stayman-esque method to discover whether the No Trump bidder has opened with a 5-card Major suit.

Puppet Stayman
This is a variation of Puppet Stayman devised by Mr. Justin Lall and posted on his website on September 7, 2011. The responses vary in the sense that they not only include the normal Stayman response, plus the transfer bids, and the Four Suit Transfer bids to the Minor suits, but also first responses on the three level to show a certain distribution on the three level.

Puppet Stayman Alternative
This alternate version of the Puppet Stayman conventional method was posted online by Mr. Gerben Dirksen of Tübingen, Germany.

Size-Ask Puppet Stayman
This is a feature of GUS, Granovetter Unified System, developed by Mr. Matthew Granovetter with assistance from Pamela Granovetter. The Granovetter Unified System is based on a strong, artificial 1 Club opening bid. When opening a 1 No Trump bid, however, this opening bid usually promises a range of 14 plus to 16 points, but may also indicate a range between 12-13 points plus a 5-card Major suit and an otherwise balanced holding. The employment by the responder of 2 Clubs (size-ask Puppet Stayman) allows the No Trump bidding partner to reveal whether the range is indeed 12-13 points with a 5-card Major suit and a balanced holding. Any other rebid than a Major suit rebid promises a full No Trump bid with the agreed range of 14 plus to 16 points.

Purchasing Bridge-Related Items
Shopping for Bridge ItemsThe bridge player can purchase, order, and pay for bridge related articles online in the digital age. The number of online stores, shops, and manufacturers for all things pertaining to the game of bridge has increased with the advancement of digital technology. The attempt is made to present a list of such online sites in order to make any purchases more convenient and to allow the bridge player to conduct comparison-shopping with the use of the computer or digital device.

Purple Twos
The origin of this work in progress, as it is described, is unknown and can be found at the following URL: This information has been archived on this site as a .pdf file for future reference.

1. Slang: bid more than justified by the values held;
2. Slang: a raise of partner’s suit with the intent of pushing the opponents to a level at which they may be defeated;
3. Slang: in team-of-four contests, a no-score result on a deal.
4. Slang: a board in a team match, in which the result is the same in both rooms or at both tables, also called Stand-Off.

1. Slang: the overbidder;
2. Slang: intermediate cards that can be led through an opponent's honor.

Put on the Floor
Slang: the act of failing, generally as the declarer, because of an avoidable mistake.

Bridge Puzzles - Bridge Crosswords - Acrostic Quizzes
These are bridge puzzles meant as a hobby for bridge players. All the clues relate to the game of bridge. The Acrostic Quiz Diagram contains a form, in which the letters are entered according to their number. The answers to the Acrostic Quiz Questions provide the letters, to which each letter has been assigned a number. The solution is derived once all letters, according to their numbered designation, have been entered on the Acrostic Quiz Diagram. The result is a bridge quote from an expert bridge player, read from left to right, top row to the bottom row. The answers are available upon request.

These are printable .pdf files for the amusement of the bridge player.

The designation acrostic refers to a poem or series of lines in which certain letters, usually the first in each line, form a name, motto, or message when read in sequence. The word derives from the Greek word akrostikhis or akron translated as head and/or end. Although the puzzle has been designated as an acrostic, it is not a true representation of the definition. See the example for an illustration of an acrostic poem.

Eerie stories and poems.
Decorate our imagination. Both
Good and evil
Are challenged along with
Love and insanity
Lurk through the pages and
Anthologies. You will
Never know what is to happen next.
Problems of murder and mystery,
Oddities and wonderment are
Expressed with such peculiarity only he could achieve.

The answer is: Edgar Allan Poe, the first letter of each line of the poem read in sequence.