Object Of The Game
In duplicate bridge, the object of the game is to score points on a particular deal or board. One other opinion among bridge experts is that the object of bidding in contract bridge should be to bid in such a manner as to get the opponents into a contract which the can not make, double and then set them.

<>Obligation To Pass
When a player bids out of rotation, the Laws require as a penalty that his partner must pass when next it is his turn to call, or for the duration of the auction. If, however, that player under such an obligation to pass makes a bid, double, or redouble, then both members of the offending partnership must pass for the rest of the entire auction. See Laws 27 to Laws 40.

This is a term which defines a play which can not lose, but may win a trick when the situation is such that not to make the play will gain nothing and will lose the opportunity of making a trick that might otherwise be sacrificed, as an obligatory duck or an obligatory finesse.

Obligatory Cuebid
This is the designation given to a concept, which states that in certain game-forcing situations, where a fit has been established, a player is obliged to to initiate a cuebid, if ithe cuebid is below any game contract, and even if the holding does not appear to be that strong or have the expected values.

Obligatory Finesse
This is the play of a small card on the second lead of a suit in the hope that the adversary yet to play holds only the commanding card of the suit. The object of the obligatory finesse is to limit the number of losers in the suit when only two of the five honors are held.

Obvious Shift Principle
A carding method from A Switch in Time by Pamela and Matthew Granovetter. At Trick 1, partner of opening leader compares the led suit and obvious shift suit. Encouragement, upside-down or standard, denies tolerance for the obvious shift suit. Discouragement actively confirms tolerance for the obvious shift suit. This applies whether opening leader will maintain the lead or not.

This is the designation given to the later, revised version of the bidding system called Carrot Club.

O'Carrot Club Opening Bids
The O'Carrot Club opening bids represent the newer version of the Carrot Club opening bids. This version was developed by Mr. Sven-Olof Flodqvist, who played it with Mr. Svante Ryman, Mr. Hans Gothe, and Mr. Lars Andersson in order to satisfy certain sponsoring bridge organizations, which declined to accept the original version (Carrotski Club) under their Rules and Regulations policies.

Occam's Razor
Occam's, or Ockham's razor is a principle attributed to the 14th century logician and Franciscan friar, William of Occam. Ockham was the village in the English county of Surrey where he was born. The principle states that Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Sometimes it is quoted in one of its original Latin forms to give it an air of authenticity.

Octagonal Two-Trick Squeeze

Octopus Club Bidding System
This is the designation assigned to a bridge relay system, which was devised and developed by Mr. Giorgio Rivara, whose website can be visited by clicking on the link above. Mr. Giorgio Rivara, genovese, istruttore di bridge, si è dedicato all'elaborazione ed alla stesura dell'Octopus Club prendendo spunto dal sistema Ultimate Club pubblicato per la prima volta negli Stati Uniti nel 1981.

Octopus Club Opening Bids
This is the designation assigned to a bridge relay system, which was devised and developed by Mr. Giorgio Rivara, whose website can be visited by clicking on the link above. Translation: The basic idea comes from the American system Ultimate Club published by Becker, Granovetter, Ginsberg and Rubin in 1981. This information has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: Mr. Giorgio Rivara, genovese, istruttore di bridge, si è dedicato all'elaborazione ed alla stesura dell'Octopus Club prendendo spunto dal sistema Ultimate Club pubblicato per la prima volta negli Stati Uniti nel 1981.

1. of a level, as "one-odd" at the one-level.
2. of tricks, six more than the number specified, as "two odd tricks" or eight tricks altogether.

Odd-Even Discards
A defensive signaling method in which odd-numbered cards, such as the three, the five, are encouraging, and the even-numbered ones are discouraging and may have suit-preference implications. The one disadvantage to this method of discarding is the fact that the player will always encounter holdings where no odd and/or even discard is possible. Therefore, some partnerships treat some even discards as more discouraging than other discards. A discard of a three, for example, can be a more encouraging signal than a discard of a 9, when no even card is available. The partner should deduce from his holding and that of the dummy whether or not the partner may hold no even and/or odd cards to discard correctly. Note: This practice may be allowed in ACBL play only on the first discard. Please check.

According to the ACBL General Convention Chart, a partnership may use odd/even or other forms of dual message signaling on each player’s first discard only. Otherwise, signals must be either right side up or upside down. A player who deliberately violates this rule subjects his partnership to adjusted scores when the opponents are damaged through the use of an illegal agreement, procedural penalties even when there is no damage, and possibly more severe penalties. Mike Flader - ACBL Rulings

Odd Trick
A trick won by the declarer in excess of the first six tricks. The phrase is from the game of Whist in which the winning of the odd trick was paramount.

Oden Rule
This is a rule devised by Mr. Alex Traub of South Africa to help the declarer who must make a series of plays, and/or ruffs, and needs to end up in a specific hand. If this specific hand is considered to be the master hand, then the first trick must be won in the master hand if an odd number of plays must be made. Conversely, if an even number of plays must be made, then the first trick must be won in the non-master hand, or the "satellite hand" as Mr. Alex Traub calls it in his book Trump Technique. The name is derived from Odd-evEN.

Slang: down; set;
Slang: off-side.

A player in violation of the laws or regulations. A player who commits an irregularity. Law 12 or Law 72 may be invoked.

1. the strategic plan or attack by the opponents. An offensive play or bid is considered to be an aggressive move as opposed to the defensive play or bid. The term applies to all bridge players at the table.
2. a breach of the Laws.

Official Score
In duplicate bridge, the account prepared by the director which includes the score for each contestant for each board, his score and rank for the session and for the event.

Official System
A system of contract bridge bidding devised and endorsed by a group of leading American authorities in 1931. This official system was in opposition to Mr. Ely Culbertson, although they recognized his credit in making the game of bridge popular. They were Mr. Milton C. Work, Mr. Sidney S. Lenz, Mr. Wilbur C. Whitehead, Mr. Winfield Liggett Jr., and Mr. F. Dudley Courtenay. The Advisory Council included Mr. Shepard Barclay, Mr. Fred G. French, Mr. Henry P. Jaeger, Mrs. Madeleine Kerwin, and Mr. E.V. Shepard. However, after Mr. Ely Culbertson's 8,980 point win over 150 games against Mr. Sidney Lentz in the 1931 so-called Bridge Battle of the Century, the Official System gave way to bidding systems promoted by Mr. Ely Culbertson.

Not having one of the usual or expected distributions.

Off Shape Takeout Double
Also designated as Minimum Off Shape Takeout Double. This is basically a takeout double made with a holding, which does not correspond to the traditional shape or pattern for a takeout double.

Unfavorably located. A card so placed that a finesse, if attempted, will lose.

Ogust Convention
A conventional method of rebidding after a 2 No Trump response to a Weak Two opening bid by partner, devised by Mr. Harold A. Ogust, with the intention of describing the holding more completely in terms of weakness and strength. Note: variations are listed below.

Benji Acol Variation - This variation has been adopted for the Acol bidding system to show not only the quality of the suit, but also the number of high card points via the responses.

Bogust Variation - This variation is based on the Weak Two bidder opening with either a good 5-card suit with two of the top three honors, or any 6-card suit. In response to the forcing 2 No Trump bid by partner, the rebids of the Weak Two bidder show the length of the suit and the approximate number of Losing Tricks.

Feature Variation - The origin is unknown. This variation, via the responses, determine whether the Weak Two bidder is indeed weak or strong and to discover whether the Weak Two bidder has a specified feature in a desired suit. The indicated honor is generally considered either a Queen or higher.

Honor-Quality Variation - The origin of this variation is unknown. Similar to the Ron Klinger variation, this variation promises a certain number of the top three honors together with the quality of the suit.

Modified Ogust - A variant of the Ogust conventional method developed by Mr. Jeff Goldsmith specifically for a Weak Two opening bid in Hearts.

New Ogust or September - The origin is unknown. A variation of the Ogust conventional system, whereby the rebids are based on the Losing Trick Count method.

Reverse Ogust - A variant of the Ogust conventional method, origin unknown, whereby the meanings of the two bids 3 Diamonds and 3 Hearts are reversed.

Ron Klinger Variation- A variation developed by Mr. Ron Klinger of Australia to indicate via the rebids the number of honors held after a Weak Two opening bid.

OKBridge - The story behind possibly the first online bridge application is included below.

OKbridge, Inc. is an online bridge club dedicated to serving the worldwide community of bridge players by providing superior software and service.

OKbridge began as a by-product of founder Matt Clegg’s courtship of Merja, now his wife. The couple met in 1989 when Merja, a native of Finland, came to California to study with a famous geneticist, Matt’s father. After Merja returned home, Matt took a year off from graduate school to be with her in Finland.

While in Finland, Matt developed an Internet bridge program as a way of playing bridge with his friends back in the US. OKbridge was first released to the public in August 1990 and the idea caught on. The players sent Matt a steady stream of suggestions, many of which were incorporated into the program.

After several years, there were thousands of people from around the world using the OKbridge software. Due to the increasing demands placed on Matt’s time, he conducted a survey of users in 1993 to determine if they would be willing to pay a subscription fee if he continued to upgrade the software and provide service. The users approved of the idea, and commercial OKbridge was launched in 1994.

Today, OKbridge has more than 18,000 members from over 90 countries, making it the world’s largest member-supported online bridge club.

OKbridge Milestones

August 1990 - Version 1.0 of OKbridge released to the public as freeware.

July 1992 - OKbridge becomes the first online service ever to offer duplicate bridge.

Spring 1994 - A knockout team tournament was held online involving sixteen teams from four continents.

June 1994 - Commercial OKbridge was launched to 500 enthusiastic users.

November 1995 - Introduced Windows version of software.

August 1997 - OKbridge becomes first ever online bridge club to be sanctioned by the American Contract Bridge League for the issuance of masterpoints.

October 1997 - First ever online bridge club to offer daily online duplicate tournaments.

November 1997 - Founder Matt Clegg named the International Bridge Press Association’s Personality of the Year for his contributions to the game of bridge.

March 1999 - OKbridge inaugurates the first annual Internet World Bridge Championships co-sponsored by OKbridge, the American Contract Bridge League, Bridge World Magazine, and the World Bridge Federation.

July 2000 - Introduced an easy to use Java-based version of the software that can be played from most web browsers.

The origin of this treatment is unknown. After a cuebid of the opponent's suit in the bidding process, which is employed to invite to 3 No Trump, as the final contract, if the partner holds a stopper in the intended suit, the lowest possible bid in an unbid suit shows a partial stopper in the opponent's suit. If this is not possible below 3 No Trump, then a bid suit may be utilized.

Oldest Bridge Clubs
The world’s oldest bridge clubs date back to the era of Whist. The oldest club is the Portland Club in London, England, which was founded before 1815 as the Stratford Club, and named the Portland Club in 1825. The second-oldest is the Hamilton Club in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, founded in 1887. The third-oldest bridge club is the Continental Club in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, founded in 1889.

Oltbrink Bidding System
This system was devised by and is played by Mr. Sjoert Brink and Mr. Erik Oltmans from The Netherlands. The designation is a combination of the two surnames of the developers. The system is based on the combination of Precision and the Lorenzo Two Bids.

The official designation is The World Teams Olympiad. This is a worldwide team competition at contract bridge, conducted and supervised by the World Bridge Federation and offers an Open and a Ladies event. The competitions have been held every four years since 1960. This event allows every country to field one team in both categories, no matter the size of its individual bridge population provided it is a member of the World Bridge Federation.

This term was applied in the game of bridge in the sense of a contest of skill at contract bridge in which anyone could participate. The first American Bridge Olympic and World Bridge Olympic were conceived, promoted, and sponsored by Mr. Ely Culbertson in 1932.

Omar Sharif World Individual
The largest total monetary prize of $200,000 was offered when the Omar Sharif World Individual bridge tournament was held in Atlantic City, New Jersey between May 7 and May 10, 1990. This was also the first time that the ACBL sanctioned a cash-prize tournament. Mr. Zia Mahmood of Pakistan won first prize of $40,000, Mr. Fred Hamilton won second prize of $20,000, and Mr. P.O. Sundelin of Sweden won third prize of $12,000.

Ombre - Hombre - The Man
This is the designation of a card game and is a trick-taking card game very similar to the modern games of Spades and Hearts. The game itself is in many ways and fashion a direct ancestor of the modern game of bridge. The link is to the website of Mr. Michael Austin, who provides the explanations for actually playing the game in its original version. He also provides the various designations assigned to the cards themselves. It is only with these clarifications that the student can understand the extensive poem titled The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope, born May 21, 1688 and died May 30, 1744, in which he describes the game in poetic form.

This particular poem is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded five canto version. The poem was based on an incident recounted by Pope's friend, John Caryll. Arabella Fermor and her suitor, Lord Petre, were both from aristocratic Catholic families at a period, in England, when Catholicism was legally proscribed. Petre, lusting after Arabella, had cut off a lock of her hair without permission, and the consequent argument had created a breach between the two families. Pope wrote the poem at the request of friends in an attempt to "comically merge the two". Pope utilises the character Belinda to represent Arabella and introduces an entire system of "sylphs," or guardian spirits of virgins, a parodic version of the gods and goddesses of conventional epic. Pope satirizes a petty squabble by comparing it to the epic world of the gods.

This ombre-related passages of canto III of the Rape of the Lock in English can be read also on the site of Mr. Michael Austin, or the entire canto III can be viewed as a poem in Rape of the Lock on this site with introductory explanations, and elsewhere on the Internet. This particular poem, which is translated into German and which is the Dritter Gesang of Der Lockenraub can be read also on this site in .pdf file format. The German version is longer since it includes also the passages, which do not pertain to or describe the game of Ombre.

Omnibus Two No Trump Response
The concept introduces a response method for the responder once an immediate fit in a Major suit has been established. The responder must hold game values for this partnership agreement to take effect. Therefore the responder, with game values, will respond first with a bid of 2 No Trump.

Ominibus - Revised and Updated Version
This is a complete version of the employment of the Omnibus 2 No Trump response devised by and contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, United States. It was published in Popular Bridge magazine, June 1978, in The Bulletin of the ACBL, February, 1981, and in the Contract Bridge Forum, February 1982. It is included in Bridge Conventions Complete, by Amalya Kearse. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Ominibus Simplified
This is a version of the employment of the Omnibus 2 No Trump response devised by and contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California. It was first published in the magazine Popular Bridge in 1977. The advantages of this conventional method are: 1. a responding No Trump holding of 16-18 high card points can be shown at a low level when slam is a possibility; 2. some suit contracts normally played from opener's side may be played from the side of the No Trump bidder, plus other advantages. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

A nationwide French tournament, which was first played in 1963. The organizer was Irene Bajos de Heredia. Special decks with perforated edges were distributed to all playing centers, so that the players themselves could select the 13 cards needed for each deal by inserting a metal pin in the appropriate hole. Scoring was on a basis similar to a Par Contest, with awards for good and bad results in bidding and play according to the decisions of an expert panel.

Slang: makeable;
Slang: onside; favorably located.

Indicating the amount of a part-score, as "60-on" or having a partscore of 60.

A bid at bridge contracting to win one odd trick, the book of six tricks plus one trick.

One Club Artificial and Forcing
This method was played in a variety of forms, but the earliest form used in contract bridge was devised by Mr. Harold S. Vanderbilt in his Club Convention, although Mr. Robert F. Foster advocated a similar concept in the auction.

One Club System
A bidding method based on an artificial 1 Club opening. There are several systems which still include this feature: Bangkok Club, Blue Team Club, Canary Club, Carrot Club, French Club, Little Roman, Marmic, Orange Club, Precision, Relay, Roman, Roth Club, Simplified Club, Trefle Squeeze, Vanderbilt, Vienna.

One Diamond Example Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed and devised by Mr. Glen Ashton of Nepean, Ontario, and included multiple interpretations for the 1 Club opening bid. If the first response is 1 Diamond, then the responder shows interest and requests additional information regarding the true nature of the holding. Any Major suit response is considered natural. The No Trump range is considered to be weak and the 2 No Trump opening shows a distributional holding in the Minor suits. Below is the bidding system outlined by the author in an email message dated December 6, 1993.

From: ah335@Freenet.carleton.ca (Glen Ashton)
Subject: Re: 1D rule
Organization: The National Capital Freenet
Date: Mon, 6 Dec 1993 22:59:57 GMT

As an example of the type of system one can have with the new all purpose 1 Diamond ACBL rule (note that only key responses and rebids will be given): (In Kaplan notation, M=major, m=minor)

1 Club: shows either:

a) 4 Spades or 3 Spades with singleton Heart, and 9-17 HCPs; 9-11 HCPs if balanced
b) balanced hand, 15 or more HCPs, can have five card Major
c) hand with no 4-card Major (and not 3-1 in Majors), 15+ or more HCPs
d) 18 or more HCPs, with no 5-card Major
e) 20 or more HCPs, any shape

Most often hand type a is held.

After 1 Club:

1 Club - 1 Diamond asks:

1 Heart: 18 or more HCPs, responder usually bids 1 Spade over 1 Heart
1 Spade: hand type a)
1 NT: 15 to 17 HCPs, balanced
2 Clubs: 15 to 20 HCPs, long Clubs, no 4-card Major
2 Diamonds: 15 to 18 HCPs, long Diamonds, no 4-card Major
2 Major suit: 18 to 21 HCPs, 4-card Major and longer Minor suit
2 NT: 23 to 24 HCPs, balanced
3 any suit: 19 to 23 HCPs, 4-4-4-1, any singleton

After 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 :

1 NT: 18 to 20 HCPs balanced
2 Clubs: game forcing, any shape
2 Diamonds: 18 to 21 HCPs with Diamonds, no 4-card Major
2 Major suit: non-forcing, 20 or more HCPs, 5-card suit or longer
2 NT: 21 to 22 HCPs
3 Minor suit: non-forcing, 20 or more HCPs, long Minor suit

1 -1 : 5-card or longer Spade suit

1 - 1 : 4-card or longer Heart suit

1 Diamond: 9 to 17 HCPs and four Hearts or three Hearts and a singleton Spade, 9 to 11 HCPs if balanced. 1 Diamond - 1 Heart shows three or four and is forcing,

1 Diamond - 2 Hearts is to play opposite 9 to 14 HCPs.

1 Major suit: 5-card suit or longer, 10 or more HCPs
1 NT: 12 to 14 HCPs, balanced, may have 2-2-5-4 or 2-2-4-5
2 Minor suit: 6-card suit or longer, 10 to 15 HCPs, no 4-card Major suit
2 Major suit: weak
2 NT: 5-5 in the Minor suits, 12 to 14 HCPs
3 Clubs and above: the usual

Glen Ashton

One Diamond Negative Response to One Club
In most bidding systems, which use an artificial opening of 1 Club as a forcing bid, a response of 1 Diamond is employed to deny certain values, and in some partnership understandings, denies also a certain point count, and in other partnership agreements, denies a certain number of controls.

One Heart Opening Transfer to One Spade - 1 Heart Opening Transfer to 1 Spade
The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. An opening bid of 1 Heart transfers the partner to the Spade suit either or the one level or on the two level depending on whether the immediate opponent intervenes with an overcall of a suit or No Trump. If the opponent makes a call of a double, then the partnership treats this action as not having occurred and is ignored. This conventional method is presented in the form of a .pdf file by ACBL. This method is only archived and preserved on this site, also in .pdf file format, for future reference.

One Hundred Honors
The honor cards, four of the five trump honors in one hand, entitling their holder's side to a bonus of 100 points. Scored in rubber bridge.

One Hundred Fifty Aces
All four Aces in one hand at No Trump, entitling the holder's side to an honor bonus of 150. Scored in rubber bridge.

One Hundred Fifty Honors
All five trump honors in one hand, entitling the holders side to an honor bonus of 150. Scored in rubber bridge.

One No Trump Opening
Three elements are applied in making this bid; Strength, Distribution, and Location of Strength. The point range is different with many partnerships ranging anywhere from 10 to 18 high card points. Several partnerships have agreed to use one range of No Trump for a vulnerable situation and another range of No Trump if not vulnerable.

One No Trump Overcall
A direct overcall of 1 No Trump traditionally shows a balanced distribution and a No Trump range in standard methods, and presumably a stopper in the suit bid by the opponent.

One No Trump Rebid by the Opener
The rebid of 1 No Trump by the opener shows an opening hand and also limits the strength of his holdings to a certain point count.

One No Trump Response
A bid of 1 No Trump by the responder after his partner has opened the auction, which limits his hand to a certain point count, generally 6-9/10 high card points, and which shows less than minimum support for his partner’s suit.

One No Trump Forcing Response to a Major Opening

One No Trump Response to a Minor Suit
Several bidding systems have established a range of 8-10 high card points as the requirement for a response of 1 No Trump to an opening of 1 Club. In the Goren system, a range of 9-11 high card points are necessary. The reason is that a weaker holding can normally find another bid, even a suit bid on the One Level, which could also be a 1 Diamond Waiting Bid. However, most bidding systems require a 1 No Trump response after a 1 Diamond opening, which is treated also as a forcing opening. Using the Kaplan-Sheinwold bidding system, the requirement is that a response of 1 No Trump promise 5-8 high card points.

One trick more than six. A bid or one odd is a bid to win seven tricks.

1 No Trump Opening
This presentation provides a basic understanding of the parameters for opening a 1 No Trump at the bridge table. This presentation in no way pretends to exhaust all of the principles applied by bridge partnerships around the world based on any particular position at the table, on the state of vulnerability, on the foundations of certain bidding systems, and on whether the partnership agrees to employ multiple ranges depending on the circumstances at the bridge table

One-Over-One Response
The bid of a higher-ranking suit at the one level after partner's opening bid in a different suit. The standard minimum strength is 6 high card points, but some partnerships have lowered this minimum to 3 high card points and distributional pattern. The maximum is 17 high card points in Standard American and 15 high card points in Acol, a range which is just below a jump shift.

One Spot
A term for the Ace.

A hand including a suit with at least six cards and no more than three cards in any other suit.

One-Suit Squeeze

One-Under Opening Bid
In other modifications of Weak Opening Systems, a feature called the One-Under Opening Bid was used. The opening bid of 1 Diamond, for example, meant that the bidder in truth is bidding 1 Heart, and the opening bid of 1 Heart actually meant the opening bid of 1 Spade, and so on.

Online Bridge
Many advances have been made with new and newer software programs, which allow the bridge player to play a game of bridge interactively with a device on indeed online globally with other live bridge players. The development of such programs has been an integral part of the game of bridge and such devices have added to the enhancement, expediency, and enjoyment of the game.

Online Bridge Text Messaging - Online Abbreviations

Online Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 2001

Online Points
These are masterpoints awarded for online play in ACBL-sanctioned events and are unpigmented. Please check for limitations as to the number of points permitted to be earned, since this number may vary.

On Score
Having a part-score. "60 on score" means having a part-score of 60.

A card so located that a finesse, if taken will win, such as the Queen was onside.

1. to lead to the first trick in the play of the hand;
2. with regard to the bidding, to make the first bid in the auction;
3. teams or pairs; tournament contests in which any pair, whether mixed or not, or any team of whatever formation may play;
4. the room in a championship event in which spectators may be present;
5. when pertaining to a room, where an event occurs, the term is used for allowing spectators to be present.

The player making the first bid.

Opener's Rebid

Open Event
In these events, there are no restrictions due to expertise, gender or age.

Open Hand
The dummy's hand.

Opening Bid
The first bid made in an auction, other than a pass.

Opening Bidder
The player making the first bid.

Opening Bids of Bidding Systems
In the evolution of the game of bridge, opening bids played an important part in laying the foundation stone for many bidding systems. These opening bids were developed in different countries and have gained some popularity nationally and/or within the bridge community, and some have been practically forgotten. However, the developers spent many hours of research, many hours of their time to develop some sort of standard for the opening bids, which allowed a practical if not standard bidding system to become established.

Opening Call
The original call made by the dealer to initiate the auction.

Opening Lead
The lead card to the first trick, made by the player to the left of the declarer before dummy's cards are exposed. The opening lead is chosen and considered beforehand under many aspects since the lead could eventually defeat the contract. The card must be chosen based upon the bidding, visualizing the holding of the dummy and the declarer based upon the auction, in which information has been exchanged. There are also standard leads against suit contracts as opposed to leads against No Trump contracts and against slam contracts.

Opening Leader
The player, to declarer's left, who leads to the first trick.

Opening 1 No Trump
Everyone enjoys opening a 1 No Trump, but what determines this bid? Believe it or not, the range for opening 1 No Trump can be as little as 10 high card points and can reach 18 high card points. This is a large range. Before a player opens 1 No Trump, there are several things to consider. There are some bridge players who alternate their No Trump range depending on the vulnerability and position at the table. Generally speaking, at favorable vulnerability the range is 12-14 high card points and at unfavorable vulnerability the range is 15-17 high card points.

Opening Suit Bid
Regarding the opening of 1 Club, 1 Diamond, 1 Heart, or 1 Spade, the range assumed is the normal range between 12 to 21HCPs. On the strongly distributional hands, the range can sink to 10HCPs. The range can be more than 20HCPs with unusual distribution of 4-4-4-1, which are unsuitable for No Trump openings.

Open Pairs
An event of duplicate competition between pairs of players without regard to sex or masterpoint range. If the event is scheduled for two or more sessions, there is a qualifying and a final event, with those eliminated eligible to compete in a consolation event.

Fast Open Pairs
The Fast Open Pairs, which requires players to finish their two-board rounds in 11 minutes, is a permanent national event that is played on the last two days of the Summer NABC, or North American Bridge Championship. The event, introduced in 2000, consists of two qualifying sessions and two final sessions.

Previous Winners:

Year   Winners   Runners-Up
2000   Chris Willenken, Aaron Silverstein   Paul Lewis, Linda Lewis
2001   Jim Robison, Mark Itabashi   Earl Glickstein, Robert Bell
2002   Alan Kleist, Leo LaSota   Chris Willenken, Ron Smith
2003   Joel Wooldridge, John Hurd   Ed Schulte, Joseph Godefrin
2004   Peter Welden, Richard Zucker   Adam Wildavsky, Doug Doub
2005   Chris Willenken, Ralph Buchalter   Xiaodong Shi, Jiang Gu
2006   Robert Lebi, Nicolas L'Ecuyer   Adam Wildavsky, Doug Doub
2007   Robert Levin, Geoff Hampson   Ron Pachtmann, Eldad Ginossar
2008   Adam Wildavsky, Doug Doub   Brian Platnick, John Diamond

According to the ACBL Codification
Chapter VIII - North American Bridge Championships
D. Events / Schedules

NABC Speedball Championship (003-121)

B. The NABC Fast Open Pairs is approved for 2001 and 2002 on a trial basis.

From the: Minutes
ACBL Board of Directors
Hilton Suites
Phoenix, Arizona
November 22 - 26, 2002
Item 023-116: NABC Fast Open Pairs Championship (003-121)
The National Fast Open Pairs is approved as a permanent National Event scheduled to be played the last two days of the Summer NABC. There will be a scheduled review by the ACBL Board of Directors at the 2005 Fall meeting. Carried without dissent.

Open Pairs II

Open Room
At certain bridge events, the room will be opened to spectators, who are permitted to observe the bidding and play. The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge, however, addresses their conduct. See: Law 76 of Duplicate Contract Bridge.

A member of the other partnership.

Opponent’s Suit
A suit held or bid by one or both of the opponents.

1. the opponents on a hand, a set of hands, or a rubber;
2. the contestants in Direct Competition;
3. the balance of the field;
4. the other team in a head-on team event.

Optimal Twos
These bids, generally opening bids, were devised by Mr. Avon Wilsmore of Perth, Australia, and included the bids of 2 Diamonds, 2 Hearts, and 2 Spades showing either a 6-card plus higher-ranking suit or a two-suited holding of 5-5 plus in specified suits. See: Yovich's Carrot Club Opening Bids.

Optimum Strategy
The plan of attack or strategy adopted by the declarer or defender after the exchange of information offered by the auction or signals presented by the opponents. The strategic plan can also change to utilize new information obtained during the play.

A term applied to a bid, play, or point of law in which a player may have two or more choices. This term distinguishes this element from the compulsory action or procedure strictly regulated by law.

Optional Doubles
The origin of the optional double is unknown and has been modified since the first concept. The optional double, which is generally considered a cooperative double, is used to show a specific shape and a minimum of points to defeat the final contract of the opponents in all probability, and promises support for the partner for any unbid suit. This optional double provides the advancer with the option of either passing for penalty or continuing to compete.

1. a term for alternative play possibilities available to the declarer.
2. a term for alternative actions available to a player under certain circumstances after an irregularity by the opposing side. For example, an opening lead by the wrong defender gives the declarer four options from which to choose. See Laws 53 and 54.

Orange Book 1998 - Updated to September 2002. Handbook of EBU Directives And Permitted Conventions.

Orange Book 2006 - Handbook of EBU Directives And Permitted Conventions.

Orange Club
This is a strong Club System played by Mr. James Jacoby and Mr. Bobby Wolff in the World Championships in 1970, 1971, and 1972, and later on by Mr. Bobby Wolff and Mr. Bob Hamman. The 1 Club opening promises 17 high card points plus and the responses show controls. Other openings are limited and normal. A 1 No Trump opening has a range of 13 to 15 high card points with a 4-card plus Club suit or 16 to 17 high card points with any balanced distribution.

Oregon Trail Regional Championships
This bridge event was a seven-day tournament conducted annually beginning in the year 1958. The location was always a city in Oregon, United States, and which was conducted during a time each year, in which the American holiday Washington's Birthday occurred. The contested events included: Knockout Teams, Open Teams, Master Pairs, Open Pairs, Women's Pairs, Mixed Pairs, and Individual. The Oregon Trail Regional continues to be contested to this day by District 20.

Orient Bidding System
This particular bidding system was developed, invented and authored by Mr. S. Asghar Hassan of Pakistan. It represents a new approach to precise and targeted bidding and is based on a dynamic hand evaluation method. The following are links to .pdf files, which will automatically opened by your browser in a new window. These information has only been preserved and archived on this site for future reference. The original website containing these .pdf files has since been deleted from the web.

1. Birth of a Classical System   2. About the Inventor   3. Introduction
4. Profile   5. Hand Evaluation   6. Combined Strength Count
7. Slam Bidding   8. Interference Countering   9. Interference Countering
1. Partscore Examples   2. Invitational Examples   3. Game Examples
4. Slam Examples   5. Interference Examples      

Original Bid
The first bid made in any auction.

Original Holding
The cards a player has in a given suit at the start of the play or at the beginning of the auction.

Original Lead
The first card played to the first trick after the auction has been completed.

Oswald Jacoby Step Responses
The original concept is designated as control showing responses (also step responses) to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid. They were developed by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, one of the leading bridge personalities and bridge theorists. The concept is based on the idea that each response conveys a narrowed and specific range of high card points based on the Work Point Count evaluation method.

Otwarcie Polish Club
This write-up is in a .pdf file format, and describes the conventional bidding system used in Poland. This article has been written for the Bridge Forum, especially for the Internet Wspólne Forum. This file will be automatically opened by your browser. This file in only in the Polish language. It would be greatly appreciated if anyone wishing to translate these pages would send the translation to the BridgeGuys.

Our Hand
Slang: an expression indicating that a player believes his side can bid and make the highest positive score on a deal in which both sides participate in the auction.

1. a player who is a member of a table at rubber bridge, but not actively participating;
2. the order in which players are out is established by the cut for the deal, whereby the holder of the lowest card sits out for the first rubber;
3. other players going out of order.

Out-Of-The-Blue Cuebid
The Out-Of-The-Cuebid is an unusual bid of a new suit which can not be taken as a suit bid, and which indicates support of the last bid suit of the partner, strength in the cuebid suit, which is often promising a first-round control, and interest in reaching a high-level contract. The term was first described by Mr. Norman Squire in his book The Theory of Bidding.

Out Of Turn
Indicates an action not in rotation. Laws 30-32 cover calls out of rotation, and Laws 53-56 cover leads out of turn, and Law 57 covers a play out of turn.

Out On A Limb
This is a phrase used to describe a player who has taken an unusual action or to precipitate and action during an auction and is in danger of being doubled by the opponents in a contract which is at a too high level and therefore risky.

A descriptive term to indicate a player’s position at the table in respect to one’s right hand opponent.

1. to bid more than one's partnership can make;
2. to bid unwarrantedly high regardless of the result;
3. to overcall;
4. a call contracting to make a greater number of tricks than is justified by the bidder’s holding. The features of the different bidding systems have to be considered. An overbid in one system could be an underbid in another system. In competitive auctions, an overbid could be an apparent advanced save.

In general, a player who consistently bids higher than his high card and distributional strength could justify. This term is also applied to mean the player, who makes an overcall.

This term describes a situation established when the auction has passed the acceptable level, and the opponents have the excellent chance to double.

In general, an overcall refers to any bid by either partner after an opponent has opened the bidding. There are many factors to consider when overcalling and they should be discussed with your partner before application. These factors include suit length, strength of the holding, the factor of vulnerability, the Level of the overcall, the element of obstruction to the opponents, the experience of the opponents, the holding of the suit of the opponents, the vulnerability of the opponents, the conventional methods of the opponents, and other factors not mentioned here. The same factors must also be calculated by the responder of the overcaller when deciding to raise, pass, cuebid, mention a new suit, bid game and/or sacrifice.

The player, who makes the overcall or bids higher than the immediately preceding bid or the player, who balances after an opening followed by two passes.

Overcall In Opponent’s Major Suit
2 Hearts over an opponent’s 1 Heart opening is a cuebid, which can have various meanings depending on the partnership agreement and the bidding system used. See: Michaels Cuebid.

Overcall In Opponent’s Minor Suit
2 Clubs over an opponent’s 1 Club opening can have either the meaning of a cuebid or a natural bid depending on the partnership agreement and the bidding system used. See: Michaels Cuebid.

The Overcall Structure
The Overcall Structure was first published in a pamphlet by Mr. Don Spaulding and Mr. John Twineham in cooperation with Mr. Don Laycock and Mr. John Hodges in 1989.

This is the designation given to an Internet article written and published by Mr. John E. Fout. A Revised and Updated Version 1.1 can be found by clicking on the above link to the Home Page of Mr. Jeff Goldsmith. The article has also only been preserved and archived on this site in a .pdf file format for future reference.

The Overcall Structure
A second rendition of The Overcall Structure can be found by clicking on the above link of Mr. Everett Boyer. Both versions are identical except in their presentations.

The Overcall Structure
A third version with additional supplemented material can be found at this link presented by Mr. aul Cornelius as of May 2001.

Comments on the Overcall Structure
This is a summary of notes published on the Internet by Mr. Roberto Scaramuzzi. They can be found by clicking on the above link. These comments have been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format.

Constructive Overcall Structure Auctions
This is a constructive write-up by Mr. Robert Scaramuzzi on the work published by Mr. John E. Fout and presents new, if not alternative options for the bridge player. The write-up can be found by clicking on the above link. The article has also been preserved and archive on this site in a .pdf file format.

This is the general term in Australia for the opening lead. Usually the higher of touching honors.

To ruff with a higher trump after another player ruffs, and after a non-trump lead or play.

To play a higher card when partner's card is already the highest on the trick, the reason perhaps being to secure entries for oneself or for partner. This action applies not only to the defenders but also can be an action taken by the declarer.

Overtaking Squeeze

Any trick made in excess of those tricks required to fulfill the contract.

To overruff.