See: Green Suit. A fifth suit, green in color, at one time added to the standard deck. Known in England as Royal. See also Hippogriff

One of the compass points; one of the players, usually to the right of declarer, in the standard diagram.

Easy Aces
In the early stages of the game of bridge many features were accepted, which originated with the card games, from which the game of bridge eventually evolved. This also includes certain designations, which are no longer in use or employed. These designations are not to be considered colloquial, although they were game-specific. The term Easy Aces refers to a circumstance in the game of Auction Bridge, whereby two Aces are held by each side in a No Trump contract.

European Bridge League. Founded in 1947 at Copenhagen by delegates from the bridge federations of 8 countries, today it has grown to a confederation of 42 countries covering the geographical area of Europe plus Israel and Lebanon.

European Bridge League Systems Policy
This is a link to the EBL Systems Policy, which have been published by the WBF Systems Committee, Januar 2020.

European Bridge League Orange Book - Version 2002
This is a .pdf file. This book replaces the 1993 edition of the Orange Book. It contains the Directives and Conventions authorised by the EBU's Laws and Ethics Committee with effect from September 1, 1998. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

European Bridge League Orange Book - This is a .pdf file. Amendments as of September 2002 following the publication of the Orange Book in the year 1998

European Bridge League White Book - This is a .pdf file. November 2003, Chapter 10

European Bridge League Orange Book - Version 2006. This is a .pdf file. Handbook of EBU Directives and Permitted Agreements
This is a .pdf file.

European Bridge League Orange Book - Revised 2010. This is a .pdf file. Handbook of EBU Directives and Permitted Agreements

European Bridge League Orange Book - Revised 2012. This is a .pdf file. Handbook of EBU Directives and Permitted Agreements

European Tournament Directors' Guide - White Book 2004. This is a .pdf file.

European Tournament Directors' Guide - White Book 2011. This is a .pdf file.

European Bridge League Masterpoints Scheme - 2008. This is a .pdf file.

European Bridge League Tangerine Book - August 2012. This is a .pdf file. Simplified Guide to EBU Regulations on Bidding and Play.

European Bridge League Silver Plate - Regulations 2012. This is a .pdf file.

Eastern Cuebid
A low-level cuebid in an opponent’s suit, showing a stopper in that suit, as opposed to asking for a stopper by using the Western Cuebid treatment, for playing a possible final contract in No Trump. See: Western Cuebid

Eastern Scientific
This bidding system, which employs a 1 Club opening to show various shapes and strengths, is similar to the concept known as Standard American and was devised and developed mainly by Mr. Robert Goldman and Mr. William Eisenberg. This bidding system was founded upon other bidding systems and was considered an evolving bidding system. Quoted from Michael Nistler's description at bridgehands.com: In the 1970's, the partnership of Richard and Rhoda Walsh, John Swanson, and Paul Soloway developed a variant of Eastern Scientific system that incorporated a “two over one” (2/1) game forcing response by an unpassed hand (and no interference). The new system was originally known as Walsh, sometimes referred to as 'Western Roth-Stone' based on its California origination. Over time, the Walsh system was commonly referred to as 2/1 Game Force. The original elements of the Eastern Scientific system included:

1. Strong Notrump
2. Non-forcing Stayman
3. Jacoby Transfers
4. Five card major suit openings
5. Forcing Notrump responses to major suit opening bid
6. Limit raises
7. Two over One responses almost game forcing
8. Preemptive weak two bids
9. Strong artificial 2C opening bid

One of the two partnerships; the defending side in a standard diagram.

Easy Aces
1. in auction bridge, playing a contract in No Trump, no honors were scored when the Aces were divided 2-2 among the pairs;
2. The name of a popular radio show in the Thirties associated with Mr. Goodman Ace and his wife Jane. It was a comedy series, which began with a bridge theme.

This is the designation for a program developed under the auspices of the ACBL by Educator Edith McMullin to attract and develop new duplicate bridge players and games. This program was funded by ACBL and the ACBL Educational Foundation from 1999 through June 2002. This program continues under the directorship of Martl Ronemus.

EBU National Pairs
This is a bridge event, which began in the year 1932 as a contest conducted by the English Bridge Union. The event starts with a qualifying round, organised locally, with many heats. Players need not be EBU-members in order to play in the club qualifying events, but must become members of the English Bridge Union in order to qualify to the Regional Finals or any events conducted thereafter. The first winners of the National Pairs in the year 1932 were in fact Capt. Ewart Kempson and Lt. Col. Walter Buller, who finished about 2,000 (with so-called aggregate) points clear of the runners-up. However, since Lt. Col. Walter Buller was playing as a substitute for T. Selby Wraith, the second pair, Mrs. Stephenson and Mrs. Watson, were awarded the trophy based on the fact that Lt. Col Walter Buller was actually a non-qualified player.

The play of a high card followed by a low card, in the same suit, especially trump where a high-low gives the count of 3 trump cards. Commonly used to show attitude, encouragement or discouragement, or parity of count, even or odd, in the suit.

Economou Two No Trump - Economou 2 NT
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The employment of this conventional method is only applicable if the player is the first player in rotation to make an opening bid. The opening bid is either 2 No Trump or 2 Spades and shows a holding with an unknown single, long suit and either opening bid is intended as a preempt. This conventional method is also known by the designation of Terrorist Two No Trump. Since this conventional method also employs an opening bid of 2 Spades to show a similar, if not identical single-suited holding, the conventional method also carries the designation of Economou Two Spades.

Economy Of Honors
A playing technique intended to preserve honor cards from capture by opposing honors or trump. Sometimes the opponents can be encouraged to surrender their high cards in exchange for low ones.

Edgar Kaplan Blue Ribbon Pairs
San Antonio NABC, July 21-31, 1999. The Board of Director’s Actions in San Antonio has made the official decision that he prestigious Blue Ribbon Pairs will now be even more prestigious, as it's new name will be the Edgar Kaplan Blue Ribbon Pairs. Edgar Kaplan is a member of the ACBL Hall of Fame and the WBF Committee of Honor. Edgar Kaplan won many NABC events, including the Blue Ribbon Pairs with his favorite partner and long time friend, Norman Kay, and fittingly they won in San Antonio. Edgar Kaplan excelled in more areas of the game than any bridge player did who ever lived. He was a great writer, editor, viewgraph commentator, theoretician, teacher, international team captain, ACBL Board member, and the recognized authority on the laws, Edgar Kaplan unselfishly gave his time and expertise to the game. This honor is a small token of the Board of Directors appreciation to the man who most influenced the game. While not usually mentioned, Edgar Kaplan revolutionized the game. As a young player he did not take kindly to the use of hesitations or gestures as a method of communicating. At the highest level this practice took place without criticism. Being a purist, sportsman, and a gentleman, Edgar Kaplan fought hard to change this practice and succeeded. Now the use of unauthorized information is dealt with in an organized and judicial manner. Edgar may have single-handedly saved the game.

Edgar Kaplan Control Showing Responses
The original concept is designated as control showing responses (also step responses) to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid. These original responses should be viewed first and then the variation and/or version as suggested by Mr. Edgar Kaplan.

Edinburgh Congress Trophy
The competition for the presentation of The Edinburgh Congress Trophy is conducted by the East District of the Scottish Bridge Union. The competition constitutes the East District 's qualifying hear for the Rayne Cup. The first event was conducted in the year 2007.

Efos Bidding System
The Economical Forcing System was used in international championships by leading Swedish players such as Mr. Jan Wohlin, Mr. Nils Olaf Lilliehook, and Mr. Gunnar Anulf. The concept is reported to have originated with Mr. Eric Jannersten.
The publication of Mr. Eric Jannersten, Vi spelar tävlingsbridge: Boken om Efos, (Translation: We Play Tournament Bridge: The Book / Story of Efos.), in the year 1956 contains and outlines additional information about his concept and bidding system.


Efos Opening Bids
The Economic Forcing System introduced new features, especially after a No Trump opening. One of these features is the Repeated or Extended Stayman convention. The bidding system is similar to a Relay System in that, after an opening by one partner, the next, cheapest suit bid is considered either natural or a generally forcing bid. The publication of Mr. Eric Jannersten, Vi spelar tävlingsbridge: Boken om Efos, (Translation: We Play Tournament Bridge. The Book / Story of Efos.), in the year 1956 contains and outlines additional information about his concept and bidding system.

Efos Extended Stayman
Efos is an acronym for Economical Forcing System, which is used in international championships. This conventional method allows a partnership to find 4-4 and 5-3 Major fits, as well as Minor suit fits. Efos Extended Stayman may be used to search for Major and Minor suit fits after a strong No Trump opening. The concept is reported to have originated with Mr. Eric Jannersten.

An acronym for Every Hand An Adventure, a system based on very weak, 10-12 points, No Trump openings, four-card Majors, and flimsy Weak Two-bids in all four suits.

Eight or Eight Spot
The seventh highest ranking card in each suit, having eight pips of the suit to which it belongs on the face.

Eight Ever, Nine Never
This phrase refers to the general guideline for deciding to execute a finesse in any suit, especially the trump suit. It states that if the combined holding equals 8 cards, then the expert opinion, based on percentages, is that the finesse should be executed, but when the combined holding is 9 or more, then the finesse should not be executed.

Eighteen System, The
This is a designation for a bidding system or conventional method listed in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955. During the early evolution of the game of bridge there occurred a proliferation of many such bidding systems. However, many have been forgotten and were discarded for the newest version of another bidding system. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated.


Eight Is Enough

Eight Tables
At duplicate bridge, eight tables provide for competition among 32 players as individuals, 16 pairs or 8 teams-of-four.

Within or heading an eight-card holding. For example: Jack-eighth shows eight cards headed by the Jack.

Eisenhower Hand of Bridge

Either-Or Squeeze
The Either-Or Squeeze, is a simple squeeze played as a double squeeze. See Alternative Squeeze

Abbreviations for Exclusion Key Card Blackwood.

Ekren's Bidding System
This bidding system was devised and developed by Mr. Bård Olav Ekren, who is from Norway. The original version has been altered to reflect the evolving stages and has been complemented with several concepts and principles. The bidding system has been categorized independently. This information is written for and presented in a .pdf file format, and will automatically be opened by your browser in a new window. The visitor must then, in order to return to this web page, collapse the .pdf file.

An abbreviation for Equal Level Conversion.

Eleven Tables
At duplicate bridge, 11 tables afford competition for 44 individuals, 22 pairs, or 11 teams-of-four.

Within or heading an eleven-card holding. For example: Ace-King-eleventh shows eleven cards headed by the Ace-King.

This is an endplay in which two things can be achieved. In one instance, the endplay could effect that the neutral suits are all played from both the hand of the declarer and dummy, becoming the last of such plays. This instance of endplay is sometimes called a Strip Play. In the second instance, the endplay requires the declarer to allow a defender to win the trick, in order that this particular defender must lead a card which is desired by the declarer. This instance of endplay, when the defender is forced to play the desired card, is sometimes referred to as a Throw-In Play.

Elimination Play
The removal of safe exit cards from an opponent’s hand, either by extraction or by making them unsafe to play, usually preliminary to an endplay.

Elinescu and Wladow

This is an an Extract of the Ruling of the Hearting of the WBF Disciplinary Commission held on 21st and 22nd March in Dallas owing to complaint made to the officers of the WBF during the match of the final of the d"orsi Senior Trophy, played by the German Team against the USA 2 Team, in the World Championships held in Bali, Indonesia, in September 2013. This investigation was to determine any alleged improper conduct by Mr. Michael Elinescu and Mr. Entscho Wladow, who were playing on the German Team.

A term coined by Mr. Geza Ottlik of Budapest, Hungary, in a series of The Bridge World magazine, to describe coups by which a player scores a trick with a trump that would not ordinarily have sufficient rank to take a trick. A method of play based on scoring tricks by ruffing with trumps that are not high.


Elvis Presley Coup
The bridge player takes every opportunity to point out the obvious, and also to somehow deliver a punch-line unsuspectingly. Such is the Elvis Presley Coup:

This particular coup is executed when your left hand opponent leads from his Ace-Queen to your King-small. This is when you discover that The King is no longer dead!

A colloquial term to refer to the Culbertson Four-Five No Trump convention devised by Mr. Ely Culbertson in the early days of the evolution of the game of bridge.

Empathetic Splinters
This term is defined as a call, in simple form, that essentially shows interest in a slam if partner has a singleton in the suit bid. Mr. Kenneth Rexford, Esq. describes this concept more in detail on his blog Cuebidding At Bridge. This online article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

A colloquial term indicating that the spot cards in a suit are of no value. For example: Ace-empty-fifth means a five-card holding in which the only significant high card is the Ace.

Enchéres au bridge - Auction Bridge
Compiled and written in .pdf file format by Mr. Daniel Déchelotte in French. The article, translated as Auction Bridge, compiled in 2003, according to the author describes the premier system and developments of the French Standard with calls based on opening 5-card Major suit and employing a strong No Trump. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

1. a defensive card play signal asking partner to lead or continue a specified suit;
2. a bid suggesting that partner continue to a higher contract.

This term refers to carrying a meaning determined by a new, superseding, or additionally-clarified partnership agreement that 1. came into force later than the beginning of current deal and 2. is based on information that may have become available to some players but not others.

Encrypted Call or Auction
This term refers to
a call that is encrypted by agreement. An example: North-South agree that a 2 No Trump response to a Major suit opening is a game-forcing raise promising either the Ace or King of trumps, but not both, and that the opener's new-suit rebid shows a short suit when the responder has the Ace of trumps or a long suit when responder has the King of trumps. the opener's new suit rebid is encrypted, because it can be deciphered only by a player who holds or later discovers the location of the Ace or King of Spades. Note that, under this agreement, the opener might well choose not to use a new suit rebid when he lacked both top Spades.

Encrypted Signals
Signals which meaning varies with information available to the defense that may not be available to the declarer. These signals were devised by Mr. Peter Winkler, and are now banned by the ACBL and many other official bodies due to the fact that during the bidding a covert bid can be made which denies the opponents the necessary information needed to defend properly. During the course of defending a contract, different, passive signals can be communicated to the partner which obtain unauthorized information, and which may be misleading to the declarer, which in itself is not illegal, but which must be used with discretion.

1. a term applied to a bid, which strongly suggests to partner that a game contract is attainable;
2. a term applied to a defensive signal by which a player desires that the partner continue in the suit led.

1. a position of the cards with relatively few remaining in each hand; in a three-card ending, each player has three cards remaining
2. a position of the cards with some special identifying characteristic, typically occurring towards the end of the play.

Endless Howell
A Howell Movement in which all pairs play all other pairs no matter how many pairs are playing. There is one stationary North/South at Table 1. All pairs playing East/West move down one table each round, and all players playing North/South, except North/South at Table 1, move up one table each round. After a pair plays East/West at Table 1, it switches to North/South. At the highest numbered Table, the pair moving in as North/South switches to East/West at the same Table in the following round.

A specific bid of 4 Diamonds used in Weak Opening Systems requesting the opener to puppet with a bid of 4 Hearts, whereafter the responder sets the final contract. See: Weak Opening Systems.

English Bridge Union or EBU
The English Bridge Union (EBU) is a membership-funded organisation committed to promoting the game of duplicate bridge. It is also a National Bridge Organisation in its own right affiliated to the European Bridge League and the World Bridge Federation.

The EBU is made up of 39 constituent County Associations each with nominees holding shares. At its AGM in October, the shareholders elect a Board of ten directors and then, among their number, a Chairman and Vice-Chairman. The 39 counties nominate over 80 delegates, which forms a Council who meet four times a year to determine policy in the government of the game.

Every year the Council elects an Honorary Treasurer and three committees. The committees, which are the Tournament Committee, Law and Ethics committee and International Selection, consist of seven elected members. In addition, there are sub committees of the Board which include the Editorial board, Education Sub Committee, Online Advisory Group and Computer Working Party. The national headquarters of the English Bridge Union are in Aylesbury where over 20 professional people support and advise the committees and help implement policy.

English Bridge Union National Pairs
This is a bridge event, which began in the year 1932 as a contest conducted by the English Bridge Union. The event starts with a qualifying round, organised locally, with many heats. Players need not be EBU-members in order to play in the club qualifying events, but must become members of the English Bridge Union in order to qualify to the Regional Finals or any events conducted thereafter. The first winners of the National Pairs in the year 1932 were in fact Capt. Ewart Kempson and Lt. Col. Walter Buller, who finished about 2,000 (with so-called aggregate) points clear of the runners-up. However, since Lt. Col. Walter Buller was playing as a substitute for T. Selby Wraith, the second pair, Mrs. Stephenson and Mrs. Watson, were awarded the trophy based on the fact that Lt. Col Walter Buller was actually a non-qualified player.

1. in the play using an entry; transfer the lead to the opposite hand.
2. in the bidding a bid, or suggest with a takeout double that partner bid, after the opponents have bid.

1. a card that can win a trick and thereby gain the lead for its holder;
2. seating assignment given to a tournament participant, in effect a receipt for the entry fee.

Entry Killing Play

Entry Shifting Squeeze
An entry-shifting squeeze is a positional squeeze in which the squeeze card is a winner accompanied by additional winners in the same suit that provide communication between declarer’s hand and the dummy.

Entry Squeeze
A squeeze that is aimed at forcing a defender, or both defenders, to discard from a seemingly worthless holding so that declarer can create an extra entry to one hand or the other by overtaking a card of winning rank.

Epson Worldwide Bridge Contest
This is a bridge event advanced by the World Bridge Federation and sponsored by the Seiko Epson Corporation of Japan. It was the first world simultaneous pairs contest and was held in June of 1986. It was organized by Mr. José Damiani of France, and the format was for a single-session 24-board event to be conducted in heats throughout the world on the same day at roughly the same time. All contestants played the same hands and at the end of the session received souvenir booklets containing hand analyses prepared by Mr. Omar Sharif. In the 1986 contest, 80 countries participated at some 1000 locations. In the second year, nearly 75,000 players participated in the event, which was held simultaneously in 85 countries around the world. The event was the first of its kind in this magnitude and gained a place in The Guinness Book of Records 1988 as the largest tournament. Beginning in 1991, about 90,000 players from 95 countries around the world participated in the tournament. In 1992, another format was added to the contest. Two sessions were provided as a choice. The participating players could choose between playing on Friday evening or Saturday afternoon. In 1993, participation reached above 100,000 players. Games were scored by instant matchpoints with 100 top, 1200 average.

1. when relating to the cards, then the cards have the identical or equivalent rank;
2. when referring to the state of vulnerability, then both pairs are equally vulnerable or non-vulnerable.

Equal Level Conversion - ELC - This is the designation given to the modern theory that allows a player to make off-shape take-out doubles, particularly of an opening Major suit bid where the player has the other Major suit, long Diamonds, and short Clubs. If the partner responds in Clubs, the player can correct to Diamonds without promising extra values. The disadvantage to this theory is that when the player does correct, the advancer does not know the implied or actual strength.

Cards adjacent in rank, such as King and Queen, and thus equivalent in trick-taking power when held by the same player, or cards that are in effect in sequence because all cards of intervening rank have been played.

Equal Vulnerability
Neither side vulnerable or both sides vulnerable.

This term refers to the Equity Rule for adjusting scores according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge, Law 12, which allow the director to award an adjusted score on his own initiative or on the application of any player, but only when these Laws empower him to do so.

Eric Kokish's Responses
Mr. Eric Kokish believes that most experts are correct in the opinion, that two-suited holdings should not be opened with the artificial, strong 2 Clubs bid. Therefore, when the 2 Clubs opener shows a second suit, it is expected to be a 4-card suit. This stipulation affects some of the recommended sequences.

Eric R. Murray Trophy
The Eric R. Murray trophy is awarded to the team representing Canada in the Open Teams at the World Olympiad. It was first awarded in 1968.

This is the act of removing the eventual final contract, generally based on some action taken by the defenders such as a double, to a different contract in another suit or No Trump, which has generally been bid during the bidding sequence.

Escape Suit
A usually long suit to which a player can turn if he finds himself in trouble during the auction. The Escape Suit is usually a long suit held in reserve by a player making a gambling or psychic bid, especially if the player overcalls with 1 No Trump. If this overcall is doubled, for example, the overcaller can escape to his long suit. This has generally been replaced with Weak Jump Overcalls.

Escape Mechanism
Treatments and partnership agreements which allow the partnership to escape from an improbable contract. Such treatments can be the SOS redouble requesting partner to select another denomination or Wriggle, which is an intermediate step applied when an escape from an opposing penalty attempt at a low level seems prudent.

To make into winning cards by removing higher cards of the suit from the opponent's holding, which would normally be viewed as guards or as winners.

1. of a suit, consisting of winning cards;
2. of a revoke, no longer correctable.

Established Card
The term for an entry developed through play by removing a higher card.

Established Revoke
A revoke which may not be corrected. A revoke becomes established as soon as the revoking player or his partner leads or plays to the next trick, or, if the revoke is made in leading, as soon as the revoking player’s partner plays to the trick on which the revoke is made; or by the act of making a claim. A revoke made on the 12th trick may be corrected, even if established.

Established Suit
A long suit in which a player holds all the remaining high cards, which at No Trump or after trumps have been drawn at a suit contract will all be winners when the suit is led and run.

To guess at the score achieved on a deal or over a session.

Estonian Bridge Federation
The official website for all pertinent information for bridge players in Estonia.

Estonian Diamond Opening Bids
The origin of these opening bids are unknown and the designation is also vague. For additional information the interested visitor can contact the Estonian Bridge Federation.

An essential element at the bridge table. It does not matter whether you are playing social bridge, rubber bridge or Duplicate Contract Bridge.

ETM Bidding System - Every Thing That Matters Bidding System

This conventional method was developed by Dr. Les Euinton of the Nottingham Bridge Club and which is a feature of the Nottingham Club developed in the mid 1930s, which competed against the evolving Acol bidding system for acceptance by the bridge community. The idea is to show a certain range of high card points after partner has opened the auction with 1 Club. It must be remembered that in the original version that a 1 Club opening promised an opening with 16 to 21 high card points. A 1 Diamond response shows 8 or fewer high card points. This first response is considered to be completely negative in character. It is not known whether this response may be made while holding a 4-card plus Major suit, since the first responsibility is to show the amount of high card points. It is also not known whether the revised version of the Nottingham Club system by Mr. L. William Simpson, privately published in the 1950s, reduced the opening values of the 1 Club bid. See: Orange Book 2002.

European Bridge League
This organization was founded in 1947 at Copenhagen by delegates from the bridge federations of Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. All these countries were members of the International Bridge League, which they decided to dissolve.

European Bridge Union Tournament Director's Guide - White Book
This guide consists of four parts. The first part contains general comments that are related to particular Laws. The second part contains longer papers on specific subjects. The third part contains EBU regulations. The fourth part contains the WBF's Code of Practice. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

European Champions Cup
This is a competition between the elite teams of European bridge, i.e. the national team champions of the top ten countries at the European Team Championships. The competition, which was revived in 2002 in Warsaw, Poland was in actually the Sixth European Team Championship. The winners of that event were Italy, followed by Israel and Norway. Italy was more than successful ever since, as no other country has succeeded in winning this tournament. After the inaugural event, the tournament travelled to Rome, Barcelona, Brussels and back to Rome. It was beginning with the Sixth European Team Championship, however, that the supporter became the CA~IB bank and for which the trophy is also known.

The Format: The teams will be divided into two groups of four, which will play a complete Round-Robin of 20 board matches, after which the two top teams of each group will play a 32 boards K.O. semi-final match. The winning teams will play a 32 board K.O. final match for the First Place and the loser a 24 boards K.O. play-off match for Third Place. The other four teams will play two matches to classify for Fifth Place.

As an evolving company the major markets and investment banking activities have been bundled and integrated within CA IB International Markets AG, renamed into UniCredit CAIB AG. The headquarters are based in Vienna, Austria, and fully owned by Bank Austria Creditanstalt AG, this company runs the institutional equity business, research, M&A advisory, equity capital markets and merchant banking and trading activities with institutional counterparties.

Ranking among the top financial groups in Europe, UniCredit has a presence in 23 countries, with over 40 million clients and 9,000 branches. Within the Group, the division UniCredit Markets & Investment Banking is the competence centre for global financial markets and investment banking services.

The European Champions Cup competition was originally tried under the support of PHILIP MORRIS in the 1979. The Europa Cup addressed the winners of the national club championship in each EBL country. Every two years, the winners of neighbouring countries met in a qualifying stage, with the top ones advancing to the European final. The competition was discontinued in 1988, and gave way to another championship that was established in 1990 as a biennial event: the European Mixed Championships.

European Community Championships
These championships, which are also known as the European Common Market Championships, are held every two years. Championships are played for Open Teams, Women's Teams, Mixed Teams, Junior Teams, Open Pairs, Women's Pairs and Junior Pairs.

European Small Federation Games
The Small Federations games are open to the European NBO’s, which have up to 500 registered members. Every Small Federation can send one team of 4 to 6 players. Teams are playing a full round-robin of 12 boards per round. Open Pairs participating in the European Small Federation Games is open to all players and it is conducted over 3 sessions of 24-30 boards per session. Scoring is by match points. Open Teams participating in the European Small Federation Games is open to all players and it is conducted over 2 sessions in a swiss format of 6 rounds, 8 boards per round.

European Women's Festival/Jamboree
The European Women's Festivals were social gatherings of women bridge players, focused on the average player, organized by the EBL Women Committee. Transnational combinations were allowed in the various tournaments, and non-European players were usually welcome.

1. of a suit split meaning exactly equal. For example: a three-three split is an even split
2. of a card meaning with an even number of pips, such as the 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10
3. of a suit holding meaning of even parity.

A contest of one or more sessions in duplicate bridge played to determine a winner.

Event Time
A colloquial term referring to scores of 530 or 730. In other words 5:30am/pm and 7:30am/pm.

Everything That Matters Bidding System
See: ETM Bidding System

Excess Points
During the early period of evolving contract bridge, a cumulative scoring method was used in pair competition. The limit placed on the number of points that could be scored was, for the defenders, 600 points if not vulnerable, 900 points if vulnerable, and for the declarer, 800 points if not vulnerable, and 1000 points if vulnerable. There was no limitation placed if the contract was a small slam or grand slam contract. The losers lost total points and winners were credited only with the maximum, and the balance of points was carried to a special excess points column used only for breaking ties in the competition. In England, the 600 points maximum for defenders was 700 points. However, since matchpoint scoring was introduced, the method of total-point scoring was dropped and replaced. Officially, the total-point scoring method was discontinued and omitted from the Laws of Contract Bridge in 1943 and thereafter.

Exciting World of Bridge
This publication was created by Edith McMullin as a brochure for use in introducing new plays to the special features of duplicate games at bridge clubs.

Only under certain pre-described situations and circumstances may a Unit Board of Directors vote to exclude a member of another Unit from its tournaments.

Exclusion Bid
This term refers to a call or bid showing length in, or asking for information about, all suits other than the one named. A bid which shows a holding in all other suits except the one already named. This is a feature of the Roman System.

Exclusion Keycard Blackwood
A form of Roman Key Card Blackwood in which partner is asked to show Aces and/or Key Cards except in a particular suit, which has been determined to be a void. This convention is also known as Voidwood.

To draw all cards of a suit from the hand of any player. A player becoming void of a suit during the play is said to be exhausted of that suit, as opposed to holding no cards of that suit originally.

To get out of one’s hand or holding, particularly when it is undesirable to lead from one’s hand, usually by making a lead which is not likely to jeopardize the value of any partnership holding.

Exit Card
A card by which one can exit from one’s hand, offering an escape from an opponent’s attempted throw-in or elimination play.

Exit Play
This is a defensive unblocking maneuver executed in order to avoid a throw-in.

Exit Transfer Bids - Exit Transfer No Trump Runouts
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is known as exit transfers, exit transfer bids, exit transfer no trump runouts, and exit transfer notrump runouts. It has been assumed that the correct designation for this bidding action is Transfers Following (After) A Double. The designation of Exit Transfers is, more or less, a term accepted by the bridge community and not exactly an official designation.

A method of responding after partner’s opening 1 No Trump bid has been doubled. A redouble forces the 1 No Trump bidder to rebid 2 Clubs. The responder is indicating that he has a particularly long suit. If Clubs is that suit, then the responder will pass, and if not, then the responder will bid his long suit, and the 1 No Trump bidder will pass. If the responder, however, bids at the two level over the double, then the responder is showing the suit bid and the next higher-ranking suit, and the 1 No Trump bidder should choose between the two indicated suits. In the case that the responder's two suits are not touching, the responder bids the lower-ranking suit on the two level, and if the 1 No Trump bidder is satisfied, he will pass. If the 1 No Trump bidder is not satisfied, then he will bid the higher-ranking suit, and the responder can show his second long suit by bidding it. The 1 No Trump bidder then realizes that the two suits are not touching and will choose between the two suits.

If the responder first redoubles, forcing the 1 No Trump bidder to bid 2 Clubs, and the responder rebids 2 No Trump, he is applying the Forcing Stayman. If the responder bids 2 Spades over the opponent's double, then the 1 No Trump bidder must rebid 2 No Trump, and the responder can now show his long Minor suit. The responder is promising game-going values for 3 No Trump or at least a contract on the four level in his Minor suit.

Expanded Mitchell
Also known as Hesitation Mitchell. A method to play one, or more than one, extra rounds in a Mitchell Movement introduced by Mr. E.E. Blandon.

When playing competitively, this term applies to what each player expects in various circumstances governed by mathematical probabilities. For example, upon every deal, a player may mathematically and correctly assume that he will be dealt 1 Ace, 1 King, 1 Queen, and 1 Jack. Each player may mathematically expect his partner to hold one third of the outstanding honor cards.

Expert - Bridge Expert
A superior player, who has had much experience in playing the game of bridge, and therefore has learned from his mistakes in the past. This term describes a player, who has gained the ability to establish a partnership agreement enabling a successful line of communication, visualize the distribution and strength of the cards held by the opponents, and with these abilities successfully declare and defend in an optimum fashion. There are many elements which contribute to becoming a bridge expert and they are too multitudinous and myriad to mention in this brief description.

Beating the Experts
This is an article contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, and which addresses the procedure of successfully defeating bridge experts or mature and experienced players, who have played successfully over the course of many years. This article was published in The Bridge World magazine in April 1996. This article is a .pdf file and will automatically be opened by your browser.

Explanation Of Any Call Or Play
Whenever a player makes a conventional call that is not a Class A Convention, his partner should alert the opponents so that they may inquire as to the partnership agreement. During the auction and before the final pass, any player may, at his turn to call, ask for a full explanation of any call made by an opponent. After the final pass and throughout the play, any player, except the dummy, may, at his turn to play, ask for an explanation of opposing calls or card play conventions. See Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge, Laws 73 and 75.

Exposed Card
1. a card whose face becomes visible at an incorrect time under the laws;
2. a card that must be played in accordance with a penalty.
The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge governing exposed cards during the auction: Law 24. The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge governing exposed cards during the play are: Laws 48, 49, and 68.

Exposed Hand
Generally refers to the dummy, but it may also apply to the hand of declarer or a defender, which may become exposed by accident or in the process of making a claim. The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge governing exposed hands are: Laws 48, 49, 62, 64, and 68.

Extended Baby Blackwood
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. There is an extended version of Baby Blackwood and is used by some partnerships. If one partner has opened the bidding auction with a Major suit promising a minimum of 5 cards in that suit, and the responder bids 2 No Trump, then this is understood as meaning the initiation of Baby Blackwood on the two level.

Extended Crash Defense Method
The origin of this variation is unknown. This variation of the Crash conventional method is also designated as Original CRO, for Color, Rank, and Odd. It is similar to the original Crash conventional defense method, but it includes the bid of 2 No Trump to show a specific Minor and a specific Major suit.

Extended Gerber
A method of pinpointing certain Aces, Kings, and Queens in slam attempts.

Extended Landy
An extension of the Landy convention was suggested by Mr. Ira Rubin in the year 1947.

Extended Lisa - The Lisa Convention - Fourth Suit Forcing Lisa
This concept is a variation / extension of the Bart conventional method and was conceived and developed by Mr. Jamie Radcliffe and Mr. Pete Whipple. Their write-up was published in The Bridge World in October 2007, Volume 79, Number 1. The source for the information is a write-up and summary of Mr. Neil H. Timm and posted in Bridge News, to which a registration is required. This information is in a .pdf file format and will automatically be opened by your browser in a new window. This information is also only archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Extended Michaels Cuebids Over Minor Suit Openings
Also known as Spear Cuebids, the designation given to the concept by the developer Mr. Jack Spear. This information has been contributed by and courtesy of Mr. Jack Spear to this site in the year 2008 and is presented in its original version in a .pdf file format and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Note: The concept of Extended Michaels is also presented in the publication The Intermediate American Bidding System, American Bridge Series, Volume II, 1998, authored by Mr. Chris Hasney and Mr. Jerry Pottier, Publisher: Trafford Publishing, ISBN -10: 1-55212-210-7.

Extended Responsive Double
An informatory double by overcaller's partner over a raise.

Efos Extended Stayman
Efos is an acronym for Economical Forcing System, which is used in international championships. This conventional method allows a partnership to find 4-4 and 5-3 Major fits, as well as Minor suit fits. Efos Extended Stayman may be used to search for Major and Minor suit fits after a strong No Trump opening.

Extended Stayman Convention
The concept is based on the idea of showing the strength of the opener on the second round of the auction. Once the asking bid of 2 Clubs, or Extended Stayman, is bid by the responder, then the opener will communicate minimum or maximum values, and also shape to the partner. The Extended Stayman version / variation is only applicable for game contracts as opposed to partscore contracts.

Extended Texas Convention

Extended Truscott
Mr. David Morgan
discovered that the Truscott Two No Trump conventional method was somewhat flawed when attempting to describe certain holdings, especially when the opponent doubling was in third seat. This is a variation of the Dormer / Jordan / Truscott Two No Trump conventional method to overcome this particular flaw.

Extension of Extended Stayman
The origin of this variation of the Stayman convention is unknown. It is designated as an 'extension' of the Extended Stayman conventional method. The partnership agreement is to first employ the Stayman conventional method after partner opens 1 No Trump. If, and only if, the first rebid by the No Trump bidder is 2 Diamonds, the denial bid showing no 4-card Major suit, does the Extension of Extended Stayman take effect.

Slang: holding extra or additional, possibly unrevealed values.

Extra Values
The worth of the holding is shown during the bidding sequence, and extra or additional values can be shown or indicated by either partner during this bidding sequence and influence the final contract.

Extra Trick
A trick scored in excess of the number of tricks required to fulfill the contract.

E-Z Deal Cards
These particular cards are decks of cards which have been coded to allow a foursome to create a special deal without seeing the faces of the cards. These cards were adapted from cards used in Europe in 1988 by Julie Greenberg, ACBL Director of Education, for use in The ACBL Bridge Series courses.